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Subject: 计算机应用::计算机应用其他学科
Title:
SandroidSat-1卫星姿态确定系统研究
Author: 赵晶晶
Issued Date: 2016-05-26
Supervisor: 赵军锁
Major: 计算机技术
Degree Grantor: 中国科学院研究生院
Place of Degree Grantor: 北京
Degree Level: 硕士
Keyword: 纳方星 ; 手机卫星 ; 姿态确定系统 ; 卡尔曼滤波器 ; 扩展卡尔曼滤波器
Abstract:
纳卫星成本低、研发周期短、集成度高,是航天领域的一个重要的发展方向。纳卫星姿态确定系统是卫星的一个重要组成部分,姿态确定系统的精度与姿态测量系统的硬件配置和采用的姿态确定算法密切相关。本文以SandroidSat-1的姿态确定系统设计为背景,从理论上全面的研究了以SandroidSat-1为代表的纳卫星的姿态确定系统,建立了姿态敏感器的测量模型,深入探讨了与其匹配的算法设计与实验方案,并且通过路面实验和仿真实验验证了系统的可行性。本文的主要研究工作如下:
1. 较为全面的、系统的总结了几种姿态确定系统中空间和智能手机中的坐标系系统,并且给出了其中常用坐标系之间的转换关系。总结了方向余弦矩阵、四元数和欧拉角三种姿态描述方法及其之间的转换关系。总结了常用的姿态确定算法及其应用场景,分析了各种算法的优点与缺点。全面的分析了现阶段应用于姿态确定系统的姿态传感器及其SandroidSat-1中的姿态敏感器,同时较为全面的总结了其各自的适用场景及其优缺点。
2. 在线性假设下,给出了SandroidSat-1的姿态确定系统的传感器组合方案——陀螺仪、加速度计和GPS的姿态敏感器组合测姿。建立了姿态测量模型和误差模型,最终结果使用卡尔曼滤波算法进行处理,地面仿真实验表明该种方案姿态输出精度能满足低轨道卫星的中等精度的姿态要求。
3. 在非线性假设下,给出了SandroidSat-1的姿态确定系统的传感器组合方案——陀螺仪、加速度计和磁强计的姿态敏感器组合。这种方案在消耗有限的星上资源的前提下,依靠手机强大的计算和存储能力,通过扩展卡尔曼滤波算法的处理,其姿态输出精度高于线性假设下的卫星姿态精度。
4. 给出了一个适用于纳卫星的一体化自适应的姿态确定系统的设计,通过使用模糊策略,以专家的经验作为模糊规则,在不同的空间条件下,智能选择传感器的姿态确定系统,通过扩展卡尔曼滤波算法的进一步处理,得到最终姿态结果,其姿态输出精度能够满足纳卫星的飞行要求。

English Abstract:

Nanosat processes low-price, shot development cycle and high integration which presents an important of field of the aerospace. nanosat attitude determination is a significant part of the satellite. The accuracy of the attitude determination system has a strong relationship with the hardware and the algorithm of the attitude determination system. This paper is based on SandroidSat-1 attitude determining system. The paper give the studies of how to design an attitude determination system of the nanoSat which is including measurement models, the algorithm design of the filter and the experiments and the experiments show that the system is feasible to nanosat. The main research works of this paper are as follows:

1.      A comprehensive and systematic summary of several types the coordinate systems which are used in both in space and smartphones. Then the paper gives the conversion relationships among the commonly used coordinate systems. A more comprehensive and systematic summary of attitude description method which presented by the direction cosine matrix, the quaternion and Euler angle and the conversion relationship are given. The common attitude determination algorithms and their application scenarios are summarized, and the advantages and disadvantages of various algorithms are analyzed. A comprehensive analysis of the sensors is applied to the attitude determination system of SandroidSat-1.

2.      In the linear assumption, the paper give a design of the SandroidSat-1 attitude determination system which is consist of gyroscope, accelerometer and GPS of an android smartphone. We also give the observation model and the error model of the attitude determination. By using kalman Filter, ground tests show that the output attitude accuracy can reach a moderate level of low earth orbit nanosat attitude determination system.

3.      In the nonlinear assumption, the paper gives a design of the SandroidSat-1 attitude determination system which is consist of gyroscope and accelerometer and magnetometer of an android smartphone. This combination consumes limited satellite resources, relying on the powerful computing and storage capacity of mobile phone, and processed by extending kalman filter, the attitude can meet the requirements of the low earth orbit nanosat’s medium precision demands under the nonlinear assumption.

4.      This paper give an integrated adaptive attitude determination system design by using the fuzzy strategy with the experience of experts as fuzzy rules which is coming from different space environment. The system can chose the more efficient combination of the sensors under different environments. Processing by an extended kalman filter, the accuracy of the system are increased. The simulation experiments show that the system can meet the requirements of the demands of nanosat.

Language: 中文
Content Type: 学位论文
URI: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/17213
Appears in Collections:综合信息系统技术国家级重点实验室 _学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
赵晶晶. SandroidSat-1卫星姿态确定系统研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2016-05-26.
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