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学科主题: 计算机软件::软件工程
题名:
软件项目资源优化调度研究
作者: 谢利子
答辩日期: 2010-06-01
导师: 王青
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
学位: 博士
关键词: 软件过程建模 ; 软件项目管理 ; 人员能力 ; 资源调度 ; 风险 ; 项目缓冲 ; 过程模拟
摘要: 信息技术的不断进步使得软件产品的应用领域不断扩大,同时软件产品的规模也在迅速膨胀。软件产品的开发模式已由最初的手工作坊式开发逐渐转变为大规模的工程化软件开发。这使得资源调度问题逐渐成为软件项目管理的核心研究内容之一。 软件项目与传统工业项目相比具有如下两个显著特点:其一是软件项目对人力资源能力的依赖性非常高;其二是软件项目在开发过程中具有的不确定性因素较多,也就是风险较高。这两个特点决定了传统工业调度方法不能很好地适用于软件项目管理,同时也为软件项目资源优化调度问题研究提出了新的挑战。需要根据软件项目的特点研究适合的资源调度方法为软件项目管理工作提供支持。 本文的研究工作旨在通过对软件项目的结构进行分析和描述,在建立软件项目核心要素模型的基础上,考虑软件项目高人力资源能力依赖性和高风险性两大特征,由人力资源能力和风险作为驱动因素,对软件项目中人力资源和项目缓冲两大核心资源进行优化分配和调度,以提高软件项目的资源利用效率和软件项目执行的稳定性。本文的主要贡献有: (1)建立了软件项目资源优化调度研究框架QMMT和项目核心要素模型PTHR。 QMMT研究框架由问题驱动(Question Driven),模型描述(Model Description),方法研究(Method Research)和工具验证(Tool Validation)四个模块构成。四个模块之间既存在顺序关系也存在信息反馈机制,框架具有良好的适应性和可扩展性。实践表明,QMMT研究框架对研究软件项目资源优化调度问题具有良好的指导作用。本文中涉及软件项目资源优化调度的多个研究问题均遵循QMMT研究框架。 通过对软件项目所包含的各个要素及要素之间的关系进行定义和描述,我们建立了软件项目核心要素模型PTHR。模型对软件项目的四个要素:项目(Project)、任务(Task)、人力资源(Human Resource)、风险(Risk)以及四个要素之间的关系进行了形式化定义和描述。PTHR模型涵盖了软件项目的核心要素并具有良好的可扩展性,可以为资源优化调度中具体问题的分析、算法的设计、流程的安排以及工具开发提供底层支持。PTHR模型是本文后续方法中相关系列子模型的基础模型。 (2) 提出了软件项目中任务-人员匹配的三维匹配模型3D-THM和基于3D-THM模型的任务人员优化分配方法。 任务人员匹配是人力资源调度的基础。3D-THM(3 Dimensional model for Task Human Matching)模型通过对人力资源的技术能力、性格能力和职业规划进行描述,以及对任务的技术能力需求、性格能力需求和职业规划需求进行描述,设定相应的多因素匹配算法,为任务-人员的全面优化匹配提供支持。实验表明,3D-THM模型较好的描绘了软件项目中任务-人员优化匹配问题,能够体现软件项目的高人力资源能力依赖性。模型实例化后所得到的匹配方法和相应的原型工具可为软件项目资源优化调度以及软件过程建模提供人员优化匹配支持,能够提高项目管理人员的工作效率,提升项目人员对任务分配的满意度。 (3) 提出了基于人员可用性的人力资源调度方法。 在对任务人员进行优化匹配的基础上,通过综合考虑人力资源能力和工作时间实现了基于人员可用性的人力资源调度方法。方法结合软件项目的结构特征,建立了任务人员可用性约束模型THACM(Task Human resources Availability Constraints Model)。基于THACM模型实现了在给定资源集合、任务集合下的人力资源自动分配和项目进度的自动安排。方法可有效解决采用矩阵组织结构的企业所面临的低资源可见性问题,协助其提高人力资源的利用效率。 (4)提出了基于任务优先级的抢占式人力资源调度方法PP-HAS。 在对人力资源可用性进行考虑的基础上,为了解决多项目环境下常见的资源冲突问题,我们提出了基于任务优先级的抢占式人力资源调度方法PP-HAS(Task Priority Based Preemptive Human Resource Scheduling Method)。方法首先建立了综合考虑进度、成本、质量三方面因素的基于价值的任务优先级模型VBTPM(Value Based Task Priority Model),将该任务优先级模型与过程Agent技术结合,通过设计支持抢占的人力资源调度流程,实现了多过程Agent协商下的人力资源优化调度。方法通过抢占和再计划实现了人力资源的动态高效利用,能够为资源冲突的解决以及项目的再计划工作提供决策支持。 (5)提出了风险驱动的软件项目缓冲资源分配方法。 项目缓冲的合理分配是降低风险对项目进度造成影响的重要手段。我们在软件项目资源调度方法中加入对风险因素的考量,基于软件项目中风险的特征,建立了简化的风险模型RRM(Reduced Risk Model)。基于RRM模型提出了风险驱动的项目缓冲分配方法,旨在软件项目的执行效率和稳定性二者之间进行权衡。模拟实验的结果表明,相对于传统关键链项目管理理论中尾部集中的项目缓冲分配方法,风险驱动的项目缓冲分配方法能够在确保对项目平均执行工期产生较小影响的同时,显著降低项目执行时计划变更的发生频率。该缓冲分配方法与项目模拟工具可以帮助项目经理确定合适的项目缓冲时间长度以及缓冲分配方案,进而提高软件项目计划的可信性和执行的稳定性。
英文摘要: As information technology continues to progress, the application field of software products are expanding rapidly, and the size of software products are also fast growing. Software product development model has changed from the original hand-workshop-style development to large-scale software development. Resource scheduling has become one of the core researches in software project management. Compared with traditional industrial projects, software projects have significant differences. Software projects have the following two characteristics: The first one is extreme dependence on the capability of human resources; the second one is high uncertainty of software project development process. Hence the method of scheduling traditional industries does not fit software project management well. It is necessary to research software project resource scheduling method based on the characteristics of software projects. Our research work in this paper aims at that through the analysis and description of the characteristics of software projects, constructs the software project model; Based on the software project model, take high dependency of human resource capability and high risk nature of software project into consideration, take human capability and risk as the driven factors, research optimized software project resource scheduling methods in order to improve efficiency of resource in software projects and ensure success of software projects. The main contributions of this paper are: (1) Optimized software project resource scheduling research framework QMMT and software project model PTHR. QMMT research framework consists of the following four modules: Question driven, Model description, Method research, and Tool validation. There are order relationship and feedback relationship among the four modules. Experiments show that QMMT can effectively guide the research work on software project resource scheduling. The framework is of high adaptability and scalability. The research work on software project resource scheduling problems in this paper is base on QMMT research framework. Driven by the research problem "Optimized software project resource scheduling", through the definition and description of the elements in software project and the relationship among the elements, we established software project key factors model PTHR. The model covers the four key elements and their relationships in software project: Project, Task, Human Resource and Risk. PTHR is of high scalability. It can provide underlying support for analysis of specific problems, algorithm design and tool development in software resource scheduling research work. (2) Three-dimension matching model 3D-THM for task-human matching in software projects, and optimized task-human allocation method based on 3D-THM. Task-human matching is the base for human resource scheduling. 3D-THM (3 Dimensional model for Task Human Matching) describes technical capacity, character abilities, career plan of human resource and technical capacity requirement, character capacity abilities requirement, career plan requirement of task. It provides the basis for optimization of task-human matching in software projects. Experiments show that the model finely reflects the human allocation problem in software projects. The method based on the model and corresponding prototype can supply optimized resource scheduling and software process modeling. It can improve efficiency of project manager’s work and personal satisfaction of project members. (3) Project scheduling method based on human resource availability. Based on task-human matching, we developed software project scheduling method which takes human resource availability into consideration. The method is combined with structural features of software projects. A task human resources availability constraints model (THACM) was suggested to support the method. It can support automatic allocation of human resources and project schedule arrangement under the given resource and task constraints. The method can be an effective solution for these companies of matrix organizational structure which faces the problem of low resources visibility and resources conflict, and improve human resources efficiency. (4) Task priority based preemptive human resource scheduling method (PP-HAS). In order to solve resource conflicts in multi-projects environment, we propose preemptive human resource scheduling through Process-Agents’ negotiation, and using value based task priority model VBTPM to solve resource conflicts. First, the model VBTPM can decompose a project’s value to its tasks through three dimensions (Schedule, Quality, Cost). The value of the task is consistent with the project status. Second, a preemptive human resource scheduling method is proposed. The resource can be allocated or reallocated much more smoothly according to the inconstant project environment. The method can help project manager to resolve resource conflicts in multi-project environment. (5) Risk-driven software project buffer resource allocation method. Software project is of high uncertainty. Project buffer is one of core time resources to cope with schedule risks. Tail centralized project buffer allocation and management in Critical Chain project management method can get better project duration. However, it also leads to much more plan changes. Thus it is not fit for cooperative software development. We propose a risk driven project buffer allocation method which will allocate project buffer according to risks, schedule constraints and resource constraints between tasks. The result of simulation based experiments shows that compared with Critical Chain, our method can remarkably reduce the frequency of plan changes and minimize negative impact to project duration. The method and the tool can help project managers decide appropriate project buffer length and make better use of the limited buffer. The stability and trustworthiness of project plan schedule can be enhanced.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/2288
Appears in Collections:互联网软件技术实验室 _学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
谢利子. 软件项目资源优化调度研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2010-06-01.
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