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学科主题: 计算机软件::软件工程
题名:
基于相关反馈的需求跟踪关系建立和维护方法
作者: 孔令军
答辩日期: 2010-05-27
导师: 杨叶
专业: 计算机软件与理论
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
学位: 硕士
关键词: 动态需求跟踪 ; 信息检索 ; 相关反馈 ; 动态需求跟踪管理工具
摘要: 需求跟踪是一种描述和跟踪整个需求生命周期的手段和方法,它是需求工程的重要组成部分。一个全面的需求跟踪关系能够辅助软件开发生命周期中很多活动的执行,并为决策分析和权衡提供依据。传统手工建立和维护需求跟踪关系的方法,在实际应用中面临着成本过高、容易出错、难以维护等问题。 为了帮助克服手工建立、维护需求跟踪关系的这些缺点,研究者提出了动态需求跟踪方法。动态需求跟踪使用信息检索、自然语言处理等技术,自动化地建立需求和工作产品之间的跟踪关系,提高了需求跟踪的效率。然而已有的方法依然需要进一步完善,其中比较突出的有两个方面:一是需求跟踪关系建立的精度有待提高,二是需求跟踪关系维护的自动化程度有待增强。这两个问题制约着动态需求跟踪方法在实际软件开发过程中的应用。如果动态需求跟踪不能保证足够的精度,建立的结果对于需求跟踪的辅助作用就会大打折扣,也就会降低方法在实际使用的价值。同时,需求跟踪关系的建立并非一劳永逸,需求和工作产品随着开发过程的进行而不断变化,这就导致跟踪关系需要不断地更新和维护。自动化、半自动化的维护跟踪关系将会促进动态需求跟踪方法在实际项目中的使用。 本文研究了现有的动态跟踪技术,重点探讨了基于信息检索技术的动态需求跟踪方法。基于以上分析,本文使用相关反馈技术改善动态需求跟踪在需求跟踪关系建立和维护中面临的问题。在跟踪关系建立上,提出了一种基于相关反馈的需求跟踪关系建立方法MERTRF(A Method for Establishing Requirement Traceability based on Relevance Feedback)。该方法使用信息检索技术建立需求跟踪关系,并使用相关反馈提高跟踪建立的精度。在跟踪关系维护上,提出了一种针对工作产品变更的跟踪关系维护方法MMRTRF(A Method for Maintaining Requirement Traceability based on Relevance Feedback from work product changes)。该方法针对工作产品的不同变更类型采用不同的维护方法自动更新跟踪关系,并使用相关反馈技术提高维护的精度和效率。同时,本文实现了提出的方法,完成了一个动态需求跟踪管理工具DRTMTool(Dynamic Requirement Traceability Management Tool)。该工具使用信息检索技术来实现跟踪关系的建立,使用向量空间模型等信息检索模型计算需求文档和工作产品之间的相似度,通过自动翻译解决中文文本和英文代码之间的匹配问题。最后本文通过使用实际的项目数据进行实验,验证了动态跟踪工具的效果。
英文摘要: Requirements Traceability refers to the ability to describe and follow the life of a requirement, which is an important part of Requirements Engineering. Comprehensive requirement traceability contributes to the activities in the development life cycle and providing powerful support for the decision making of software development process. The traditional Requirements Traceability establishes and maintains the traceability links manually, which brings the problems such as hard to maintain, error-prone and overrunning cost. When requirements changes, the traceability links' errors grows, makes requirements traceability hard to process. To solve those problems, Dynamic Requirements Traceability (DRT) was proposed. DRT adopts some technologies such as Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing, to help analyst automatically establish the traceability links, which makes great progress. However, DRT also have their own problems, two of the most important ones are that it suffers from the precision problem as well as hard to maintain, which prevent DRT from being applied to real software projects. DRT will be less valuable if the precision of requirement traceability is not high enough. The maintenance of requirement traceability is another important issue of DRT, and it will promote the application of DRT in real software projects if the requirement traceability maintenance can be finished automatically in DRT. This thesis studies the current methods of DRT, and discusses the ways based on Information Retrieval in detail. Base on the analysis above, this research puts forward to use Relevance Feedback-based Information Retrieval to improve the problems in establishing and maintaining Requirement Traceability. Moreover, on the Requirement Traceability Establishment, the thesis proposes a Method for Establishing Requirement Traceability based on Relevance Feedback (MERTRF) to help analysts establish requirement traceability automatically. MERTRF generates traces based on Information Retrieval and adopts Relevance Feedback to improve the accuracy of requirement traceability. On the Requirement Traceability Maintenance, the thesis focuses on maintenance work cause by work products’ changes and proposes a Method for Maintaining Requirement Traceability based on Relevance Feedback from work product changes (MMRTRF) to assure the consistency of requirement traceability. MMRTRF analyzes the changes of work product and applies Relevance Feedback to improve the efficiency of maintenance. The paper also design and implement Dynamic Requirements Traceability Management Tool (DRTMTool). This tool establishes the requirements traces via Information Retrieval, computes the similarity using Information Retrieval Model such as Vector Space Model and Language Model, and traces the links of Chinese documents with auto language translation. At last, we process an experiment to validate the effect of the method proposed in this paper.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/2325
Appears in Collections:互联网软件技术实验室 _学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
孔令军. 基于相关反馈的需求跟踪关系建立和维护方法[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2010-05-27.
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