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题名:
基于进程演算的主体理论及面向主体的软件开发方法研究
作者: 焦文品
答辩日期: 2000
专业: 计算机软件与理论
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 智能主体 ; 多主体系统 ; 面向主体的程序设计语言 ; 面向主体的软件分析与设计 ; pi 演算
摘要: 智能主体(intelligent agent)技术为复杂软件系统的分析、设计、及实现提供了一种崭新的途径。无论是在理论研究领域,还是在实际应用领域,主体设计已越来越受到人们的重视,成为人工智能和计算机科学领域的研究热点。人们经过多年的研究开发和实践,在主体及多主体系统(multi-agent systems)领域已取得丰硕的成果,但仍然存在很多有待进一步研究和解决的问题,主体技术的进一步推广和使用在技术上还面临着一些障碍。为此,本文针对主体研究领域中存在的问题,围绕主体理论及面向主体的软件开发方法展开了研究。首先,本文将进程演算引入智能主体研究领域,利用多价 pi 演算对主体心智状态、基于主体的系统、多主体交互及协作进行了形式化。通过形式化,不仅刻画出了主体及基于主体的系统的动态性,还反映了主体心智状态之间存在的联系。在形式化多主体交互时,本文提出了一种主体交互协议,并将该协议定义成为主体间应遵循的一种公共行为规范。通过对主休的行为规范与交互协议的一致性以及主体交互的无死锁性的证明,该交互协议不仅体现了主体的自主性和独立性,也保证了交互的有效性。同时,本文将规划、竞争、约束、及协调纳入一个协作框架之中对多主体间的功作过程进行了研究,并将协作过程分为(1)产生需求、确定目标,(2)协作、求解协作结构,(3)寻求协作伙伴,(4)选择协作方案,(5)实现目标,(6)评估结果等六个阶段。在规范描述主体间的协作行为时,还将逻辑和进程代数方法巧妙地融进了一个统一的形式化框架之中。第二,从主体及多主体系统的特性出发,本文提出了一种基于 pi 演算的主体及多主体系统构造语言,它具有天然的支持并发及交互行为的能力。该主体语言不仅定义了主体心智态度相对应的语法成分,为构造各种类型的主体提供了必要的形式化手段,还为构造多主体系统提供了简明的组合规则及社会规范描述手段。第三,为了将异构的主体系统组织起来,为多主体系统提供结构化手段,也为异构主体提供互操作性,本文从软件体系结构的角度研究了多主体系统,根据主体在多主体系统中所扮演的角色及地位,建立了一种与 CORBA 相似的具有动态性的多主体系统体系结构 CARBA(Common Agent Request Brokers Architecture),并采用了 pi 演算作为形式化手段,对 CARBA 的动态性进行了分析。第四,针对面向对象的方法大多采用“从底向上”的分析和设计策略,普遍存在对象难以找到的问题,并且很难在对象界面和系统功能之间建立起恰当的联结。本文提出了一套面向主体的软件分析和设计方法。该方法首先对系统的组织结构以及工作模式进行建模,以规定系统中各种角色的职能、系统要实现的一系列功能及其之间的相互关系。接着,根据系统中所出现的各类角色及其相互关系建立扮演角色的主体的模型以及主体间的交互模型。在此基础上,本文还建立了一个面向主体的软件分析和设计方法的软件支撑环境。在研究面向主体的软件分析与设计方法的同时,本评语学从实例出发,深入地研究了如何从特定领域的 Ontology 中抽取面向主体的软件规范的方法和过程。在具体描述软件规范的抽取之前,还详细分析了 Ontology 与面向主体的软件规范之间的逻辑关系,为软件规范的产生及其正确性和一致性提供了理论保证。最后,为了将主体技术及多主体系统推向实用化,本文采用构件式的原理和方法描述了主体系统的实现策略。另外,还简单地描述了主体技术在实际应用中的运用。
英文摘要: Intelligent agent technologies provide a brand-new approach to analyze, design, and implement complex software systems. No matter whether it is in theoretical research domains or in practical application domains, the importance of agent technologies has been recognized by more and more people, and intelligent agents and multi-agent systems have become one of the most research hotspots in artificial intelligence and computer science. After studying and practicing for years, researchers have achieved plentiful and substantial achievements in the domain of agents and multi-agent systems. However, there are still many problems that need further studying. To deal with some of those problems, this paper focuses the study on agent theory and agent-oriented software development methods. First, this paper introduces a process calculus, the pi-calculus, into the intelligent agent domain, and agent mental attitudes, agents and agent-based systems with dynamic characteristics, agent interactions, and agent cooperations are studied formally in the polyadic pi-calculus. By using this formalism, not only the dynamic characteristics of an agent but also the relationships among mental attitudes can be shown. While formalizing interactions among agents, this paper puts froward an interaction protocol by defining it as a kind of common specification of agent behaviors. The consistency between agent behaviors and the interaction protocol and the deadlock freedom of interactions ensure that an agent will finally achieve its goals if only the agent takes actions and interact with others on its own. Meanwhile, in this paper, cooperation processes are studied via bringing planning, competition, constraints, and coordination into in a cooperation framework. In the framework, a cooperation process is divided into six stages, that is (1) producing requirement and th goal, (2) planning the cooperation and solving the cooperation structure, (3) looking fro cooperation partners, (4) selecting a solution, (5) achieving the goal, and (6) evaluating the result. While cooperative behaviors among multi-agents are being specified, logic and process algebra methods are melted skillfully into a unified formal framework. Secondly, this paper puts froward a programming language based on the pi-calculus for constructing agents and multi-agent systems, which can naturally support parallel computations and interactions. The agent programming language not only defines specific syntactical components for agent mental attitudes, which provides necessary means of constructing varied types of agents, but also provides concise mechanisms for composing multi-agent systems, and specifying social laws. Thirdly, to structure heterogeneous agents and agent-based systems and provide interoperabilities for agents, this paper builds a kind of architecture for multi-agent systems, called CARBA (Common Agent Request Brokers Architecture) which is similar to CORBA, based on the roles played by agents in multi-agent systems. This paper also formalized the architecture in the pi-calculus and analyzes its dynamic characteristics. Fourthly, for most of object-oriented techniques adopt a bottom-up strategy for analysis and design, which makes it difficult to identify objects and create appropriate links between object interfaces and system functions, this paper purposes a methodology for agent-oriented software analysis and design. The methodology first model the organizational structure of a system and its work-mode to specify roles involved in the system, responsibilities of roles, system functions to be implemented, and relationships among those functions. Then, based on those roles and the relationships among them, agents that are to play roles and agent interactions are modeled. Based on the methodology, this paper sets up a software-supporting environment for the agent-oriented software analysis and design While studying methods for agent-oriented software analysis and design, this paper deeply studies the method how to extract agent-oriented software specifications from a domain-specific ontology. Before the extracting procedure described in details, this paper also analyzes the logical relationships between ontology and agent-oriented software specifications, which provides an assurance of the correction and consistency of the software specification. Lastly, to make agent technologies and multi-agent systems practicable, this paper describes detailedly the strategy of implementation of agent systems by using components. In addition, this paper also describes an application system to show the applications of agent technologies.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/5730
Appears in Collections:中科院软件所

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焦文品. 基于进程演算的主体理论及面向主体的软件开发方法研究[D]. 中国科学院软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 2000-01-01.
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