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题名:
“开思/ERP”系统设计与实现
作者: 石宏峰
答辩日期: 1997
专业: 计算机软件
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 软件工程 ; 管理信息系统 ; 企业资源计划 ; 数据库 ; 应用软件
摘要: ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning)——企业资源计划是当今世界上最先进的企业管理理论之一。它将企业的物流、资金流和信息流统一起来进行管理,对企业所拥有的人力、资金、材料、设备、方法(生产技术)、信息、时间等各项资源进行综合平衡和充分考虑,最大限度地利用企业的现有资源取得更大的经济效益,科学、有效地管理企业人、财、物、产、供、销等各项具体业务工作。本篇论文详细阐述了以ERP思想为基础的《开思/ERP》——现代企业资源计划管理系统中各主要模块的设计和开发过程。论文涉及内容主要包括各模块的实际业务需求、业务的数据流关系、数据结构设计和主要模块的功能设计等。《开思/ERP》是一套面向工业企业的管理软件包,涵盖了企业的几乎所有经营业务,主要的功能模块有:采购管理、库存管理、销售管理、分销管理、运输管理、总帐管理、帐簿报表管理、应收帐款管理、应付帐款管理、预算会计、固定资产管理、工资管理、成本会计、生产数据管理、主生产计划、物料需求计划、能力需求计划、车间作业管理、连续生产管理、人力资源管理、设备管理、质量管理、经营预测、经理决策等等。《开思/ERP》系统各模块间是高度集成的,数据可以充分共享,这与单一模块的软件开发有着本质的区别。集成度高给软件设计和开发工作带来了相当在的困难,企业各部门间错综复杂的业务联系和相互关系是在大型管理软件设计和开发工作必须攻克的难关。《开思/ERP》系统的各模块通过关系数据库实现彼此的联结。在设计数据库时我们基于一事一地的原则,尽量将对一个实体的描述放入一个数据库中,然后再随着业务的加工流程设置相关的程序(由不同的业务部门使用),去修改这个实体的某些属性值。《开思/ERP》系统设计分成三条主线:供销存,生产和财务。各条主线内部业务的联系相对紧密,而各条主线之间的联系主要通过公共数据库完成信息传递。提供数据的模块将信息写入公共数据库,使用信息的模块从这些数据库中读取所需的信息。本论文着重介绍了《开思/ERP》的物料管理、生产管理、销售管理、财务管理和成本管理等主要模块的设计和开发过程,这些模块的主要功能和彼此关系如下:《开思/ERP》的物料管理模块包括采购业务中的请购处理、采购订单管理、采购收货处理和库存业务中的领料处理、日常仓库入出库和移库管理、库存盘点处理等业务内容。其完成的主要功能是:汇总各部门对物料的需求,主要依据是生产物料需求计划和库存补充订货计划;根据供应高状况及物料的采购批量政策和采购提前期,合并零散的采购需求,生成采购订单;采购物料到货后组织验收,登记到货的具体情况和物料的入库信息;对仓库中的物料进行管理,登记库存台帐;完成日常的物料收发和移动处理,记录入出库单和移库单;定期提供仓库中需要盘点的物料清单,并记录每一次盘点的具体情况,根据实盘量调整实际库存,生成调库单。《开思/ERP》的生产管理模块包括企业生产业务中的生产工艺数据管理、生产计划制定、物料需求计划编制、能力需求计划编制、车间作业管理和连续生产管理等业务内容。生产管理模块完成的主要业务功能是:记录生产基础数据,主要包括产品结构,加工中心及工艺路线信息;根据销售订单和预测数据制定企业各种产品的生产计划;根据确定的生产计划和生产工艺数据,计算生产所需物料的数量和时间,编制物料需求计划,并下达采购请求和生产任务;根据确定的生产任务和生产工艺数据,计算生产任务在各时间段内形成的工作负荷,并与各加工中心所能提供的能力情况进行对比,编制能力需求计划,进行能力平衡稠整;能力平衡后的生产侨务,根据各产品的不同车间生产组织形式,安排车间作业生产和流水线生产,按照产品交货期的要求和工艺数据要求制定车间进度计划,记录车间实际加工情况和产品完工入库情况。《开思/ERP》的销售管理模块包括企业销售业务中的销售计划管理、销售订单管理、销售发货管理和销售票据管理等业务内容。销售管理模块以订单为核心管理企业销售业务,其主要功能是:根据企业年度生产计划制定各产品的销售计划;接收并登记客忘掉订单,通知仓库和生产部门备货或组织生产;按订单的交货期组织发货,开出提货单并通知仓库发货,记录实际发货情况;根据销售订单规定,开据销售发标,通知财务部门进行货款结算。《开思/ERP》的财务管理模块包括企业财务管理业务中的总帐管理、银行帐管理、帐簿报表管理、应付帐管理、应收帐管理等业务活动。财务管理模块对企业各顼业务活动的相关经济活动进行管理,核算并监督企业的流动资金、固定资金、负债和权益。其中的总帐管理完成财务的日常报销业务,主要功能是:财务科目管理,财务凭证处理,凭证记帐处理等。银行帐管理完成银行对帐业务。帐簿报表管理完成财务各种帐簿和报表的定义和输出工作。应付帐管理完成采购货款的结算工作,主要功能是:采购发票管理,应付帐款处理和付款处理等。应收帐管理完成销售货款的结算工作,主要功能是:销售发票记帐,应收帐款处理和收款处理等。《开思/ERP》的成本管理模块包括企业成本管理业务中的定额成本核算、实际成本核算和成本计划等 业务工作。成本管理模块将企业生产过程中发生的材料费、人工费、制造费归集分配到相关的产品中去,计算出产品的实际成本。并通过与计划成本、定额成本等的比较,分析实际成本的构成因素是否合理,找到降低成本的方法和途径。《开思/ERP》在设计和开发过程中严格遵循了软件工程的理论,并利用了数据库设计的方法。在整个设计过程 中,首先根据ERP理论所指出的企业各部门的业务内容及彼此关系,设计出各项业务的数据处理流程及数据传递关系;然后运用数据库设计方法抽象各个实体的属性及相互联系,并设计出各实体间的相关处理;最后设计出系统的数据结构和模块结构以及各模块功能。由于论文篇幅的限制,在本篇论文中只对其中主要模块的设计和开发进行了论述,并只给出主要数据库的清单和主要程序的流程框图。作者在《开思/ERP》的开发和设计工作中主要负责软件的总体设计及各模块的系统分析和开发控制工作。目前《开思/ERP》已在国内的一些大企业中成功地实施,为企业带来了良好的经济上和管理上的效益。
英文摘要: ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) is one of the most advanced enterprise management theory, ERP harmonizes material flow, financing flow and information flow in the enterprise, wholly balance and sufficiently use all resources of the enterprise, such as human resources, fund, material, equipment, method (manufacture technology), information, time etc. ERP helps managers to manage the enterprise more scientifically and more effectively. This CASE/ERP's main modules, which based on ERP theory. The thesis specifies every module's actual business requirements, business data flow, database structure, and main function design. CASE/ERP is a software package for the enterprise's management. It includes almost every aspects of the enterprise. The main modules of CASE/ERP are purchase, inventory, sale, distribution, transportation, general ledger, financial table, accounts receivable, account payable, budget, fixed assets, salary, cost, production data, master production scheduling, material requirements planning, capacity requirements planning, workshop control, just in time production, human resource, facilities, quality control, business forecast and policy decision etc. CASE/ERP is essentially different from the single module development software. Its modules are highly integrates, one module's data can be shared with another. High integration bring more difficulties to the software design and implementation. The modules of CASE/ERP are related with database. We design the databases according to the principle of 'one thing one database'. We describe almost every attributes of an entity in one database. Then along with the business process flow, we design the correlation functions (using by different department) to update some attributes of the entity. The system design of CASE/ERP has three main lines, they are purchase-sale-inventory, manufacture and finance. The business within each main line is relatively tight connection. And we establish relationships between main lines by common database. The module providing the data, writes the information into the common databases. The module using the data, reads the information from the common databases. The thesis introduces the design and implementation process of CASE/ERP's material, manufacture, sales, financing, and cost. The content of each chapter and the relationship between them are specified as follows: The material system of CASE/ERP includes such contents as purchase requirement, purchase order, goods receiving, and the inventory business. The main function of this system includes collecting the requirements of material from the material requirements and inventory reordering planning; referring to the vendor's status and the material's purchase lot policy and lead time to make purchase orders; checking and accepting purchase material; registering warehouse account; distributing material in warehouse, recording each inventory operation information such as material in, out, moving, and taking stock. The manufacture system of CASE/ERP includes such contents as production data, MPS (master production scheduling), MRP (material requirements planning), CRP (capacity requirements planning), workshop control and JIT (just in time production) etc. The main functions of this system are: recording production data, such as product structure, working center and manufacture routing etc.; working out master production scheduling according to the customer order and sales forecast; calculating the need quantity and need time of the material for manufacture, working out the material requirements planning; comparing the working load and the capability of working center in a period of time, working out the capacity requirements planning; arranging the production mission of workshop and production line. The sales system of CASE/ERP deals with sales planning, sales order, goods delivering, and sales invoice. Sales order is the center of the sales business. The main functions of this system are: referring to the yearly production planning to work out the products sales planning; recording the customers' orders; making out the shipment sheet, recording the actual shipment information; making out the sales invoice and notifying the financial department to settle the account receivable. The financing system of CASE/ERP includes such contents as general ledger, cash control, financial table, accounts payable, account receivable, etc. The financing system controls all the enterprise's economical activities, account the enterprise's current assets and fixed assets and liabilities and owner's equity. The main functions of this system are: applying for reimbursement; checking the account of cash in bank; defining and printing financial table; settling the account payable for purchase goods; settling the account receivable for sale products. The cost system of CASE/ERP includes such contents as standard cost calculate, actual cost calculate, cost planning. The cost system distributes the direct materials and the direct labor and manufacturing expenses to the products, and calculates the actuarial cost for each product. Cost system compares the actuarial cost with the planning cost and the standard cost. Through the comparison, we can analyze whether the actuarial cost structure is right, and find the right way to reduce production costs. CASE/ERP conforms to the method provided by software engineering during the development process. By reason of the limit of pages, the thesis only specifies main module's design and implementation process, and only describes some main database structures and main programs flow charts. At present, CASE/ERP has already been successfully used in some large enterprises. It brings many benefits for enterprise's management.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/5926
Appears in Collections:中科院软件所

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石宏峰. “开思/ERP”系统设计与实现[D]. 中国科学院软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 1997-01-01.
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