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题名:
面向软件过程改进的知识管理技术研究
作者: 张晓刚
答辩日期: 2004
专业: 计算机软件与理论
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 知识管理 ; 软件过程改进 ; 软件过程资产 ; 知识流
其他题名: Research on Knowledge Management Technologies for Software Process Improvement
摘要: 在软件组织中,对软件过程资产等知识进行有效管理是进行过程改进、保证组织持续发展的重要基础。当前,知识管理在管理领域、人工智能领域和软件工程领域得到广泛重视与研究。一个重要的研究问题是怎样将知识管理过程与组织的业务过程有效集成,从而促进知识资产在组织中的传播与重用。软件过程改进是软件组织保持和提高软件工程能力的重要实践,涉及了软件组织的主要业务活动。以服务于软件过程改进为具体目标,我们对知识管理技术进行了相应的研究与实践。本文的主要工作包括以下四点:1,提出了一个面向软件过程改进的知识管理框架我们首先阐述了知识密集型组织中知识管理的关键特征。然后以CMM模型为基础,我们对软件过程与过程资产进行分析,进而研究了一个软件过程改进体系,并基于此对软件组织业务活动进行了系统的分析,对组织级知识管理需求和项目级知识管理需求进行了论述,从而提出了一个面向软件过程改进的知识管理框架。该框架强调了将知识服务与业务活动紧密联系的思想,为知识管理技术研究提供了重要基础。2.提出了一种知识流建模与控制方法我们首先研究了一个扩展的工作流过程元模型,在此基础上对知识流建模与控制进行了系统的研究。我们提出了一种知识流建模方法,通过五类知识流单元对知识传递与重用、人员交流与协作进行表示。针对知识流中的动态因素,我们进一步研究了基于资源约束、知识需求变化和时间约束的知识流控制算法,从而实现自适应的知识流控制。该研究工作使业务过程中的知识管理得以实现,促进了积极、持续的知识传递目标的实现。3.研究了软件过程资产挖掘与检索的方法对软件过程资产进行有效的挖掘和检索是为软件过程改进相关活动提供决策支持信息的基础。我们首先对软件过程资产的表示进行了研究,定义了一个组织实践框架模型,以描述知识密集型组织中知识要素之间的联系。以此为基础研究了几种对业务活动具有决策支持意义的过程资产挖掘任务与方法。利用挖掘得到的组织实践规则、人员兴趣特征等模式,我们进一步研究了软件过程资产检索技术。以上工作促进了知识的多层次重用。4.设计与实现了一个面向软件过程改进的知识管理引擎该引擎是知识管理框架中关键环节的具体实现。引擎的设计系统地集成了知识流技术、过程资产集成分析,挖掘和检索等技术。我们实现了该引擎与一个基于CMM的软件质量保证平台的集成,为质量保证平台中的软件过程活动提供组织级知识服务和项目级知识服务,促进了组织持续地积累、传播和重用其过程资产,从而为组织的软件过程改进目标的实现提供支持。知识管理引擎的设计思想和技术方案通过系统的实际应用得到了积极的验证。
英文摘要: The effective management of software process assets is the key foundation for Software Process Improvement (SPI) and sustainable development of software organizations. Nowadays, Knowledge Management (KM) is attracting extensive attention in domains of Management, Artifical Intelligence and Software Engineering. One hot research topic is the integration of knowledge management process with business processes for improving the distribution and reuse of knowledge assets within organizations. SPI is an important kind of practices for sustaining and improving software engineering capabilities, which relates to most of the main business activities in software organizations. Aiming at providing supports for SPI, this dissertation carries out systematic research and practice on KM technologies. The main contributions of this dissertation include: (1) A Knowledge Management framework for Software Process Improement. The key features of KM in knowledge intensive organizations are identified. Then based on the CMM model, software processes, process assets and the relations between them are discussed. A SPI system is studied based on which software organization's business activities are discussed. Organizational-level and project-level knowledge management requirements are identified respectively. Then a KM framework for SPI is proposed. This framework emphasizes the idea of connecting knowledge services and business activities, and it provides an important foundation for the research on knowledge management technologies. (2) An innovative knowledge flow (KF) modeling and control approach. An extention to WfMC (Workflow Management Coalition)'s workflow process definition meta model is presented. Based on that, modeling and control of knowledge flows are studied. A knowledge flow modeling approach is proposed, with five kinds of knowledge flow components to represent knowledge distribution and reuse, communication and cooperation among participants. To deal with dynamic elements in knowledge flows, an adaptive knowledge flow control approach with corresponding algorithms are developed based on resource constraints, changes of knowledge requirements, and time constraints. This works helps to implememt KM in business process, and helps to achieve the aims of active and durative knowledge distribution. Mining and retrieval approaches on software process assets. Mining and retrieval of software process assets act as the basis of decision supports for SPI related activies. The representation of software process assets is studied first, and an organizational practice framework is designed to represent the relations among the elements of knowledge assets. Then, several practical process assets mining tasks and approaches are developed. With the mined rules and actor's profile, the retrieval approaches of software process assets are designed.These approaches help to improve the degree of knowledge assets reuse. A knowledge management engine for SPI. This engine is the implementation of he core components of the above KM Framework for SPI. The design of the engine integrates technologies including knowledge flow, OLAP, data mining and information retrieval. The engine is integrated with a CMM-Based Software Quality Assurance Platform, providing knowledge services for organizational- and project- level activies of software processes. It improves the accumulation, distribution and reuse of process assets, and provides support to the realization of SPI's aim. By practice, the idea and technologies of the KM engine's design gets positive response.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/6224
Appears in Collections:中科院软件所

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Recommended Citation:
张晓刚. 面向软件过程改进的知识管理技术研究[D]. 中国科学院软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 2004-01-01.
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