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题名:
基于构件的应用软件开发支撑环境CADE的设计与实现
作者: 高岩
答辩日期: 1997
专业: 计算机软件
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 软件开发方法 ; 支撑环境 ; 软件复用 ; 系统级复用 ; 构件 ; 构件模式
摘要: 目前,应用软件开发中存在着开发效率低、可重用性差等问题,要解决这些问题就需要有实用、高效的应用软件开发方法及其支撑环境。虽然基于瀑布模型的开发方法和原型化开发方法是两种比较成熟的软件开发方法,但其主要研究的是如何去开发一个新系统,而关于如何继承和复用已开发的应用系统的软件和主法却涉及很少,而这一点又恰恰是提高软件质量和开发效率的重要途径之一。软件开发环境大多依赖于特定的软件开发方法,CASE环境和可视化开发环境仅对减轻劳动强度、提高工作效率有所帮助,无法从根本上改变开发面貌,软件开发方法的改进才能从根本上改变开发面貌。基于构件的应用软件开发方法以软件复用和构件技术为后盾,可以复用已有的应用系统、应用框架,也可以由构件组合装配新的应用系统或补充已有系统的功能,使开发出的软件具有良好的可维护性和软件资源的可复用性,并适应用户需求的新的变化,从根本上改变了开发面貌。为了支持基于构件的应用软件开发方法,我们设计和实现了基于构件的应用开发环境(CADE, Component-based Application Development Environment),开发了一批通用构件和专用构件,利用这些可重用构件在CADE环境中演示原形、设计构件模式、组装系统,实现了应用领域的群体规模性开发,由此能够在较短时间内、以较低的成本,开发出可靠的应用软件系统。CADE系统的关键技术是软件复用和构件技术,软件复用是利用已有的软件成份来构造新的软件,它影响到系统的分析、设计、实现和维护各阶段,通过复用可以大大减少软件开发所需的费用和时间,且有利于提高软件的可维护性和可靠性。构件技术是实现从系统到代码全面复用的关键,复用的成功取决于构件的标准以及数量、质量和用途。构件是具有封装性和继承性的可重用软件,也可以是不需封装的文档、数据和功能模块。一个构件可以有多种模式,构件模式是构件类参数化后的实例,可以作为开发应用的标准构造单元。目前有影响的构件标准主要有四个OLE/ActiveX、OpenDoc、CORBA、JavaBeans标准。而直接为具体应用领域服务的部分由于牵涉较多的领域知识,还未发展成熟,支持构件来组装应用系统领域还是空白(缺乏有影响力的产品)。利用CADE进行基于构件的应用软件开发的指导思想,就是以基于构件的应用软件开发方法为核心,以CADE为支撑环境,实现系统级、应用框架及各种构件对象的全面的、大粒度的软件复用,并汲取快速原型法的迅速建立原型再修改的做法,从而减少了应用软件开发的难度,同时也提高了软件开发的效率和软件的可维护性。基于构件的软件开发的总体方案包括CADE的设计和实现以及利用CADE开发应用系统。我们将CADE划分为开发维护环境(DME)和运行环境(ROE),并开发了一批通用构件和面向应用的专用软件,在DME中定义构件模式,并将这些构件模式插接在应用菜单上,从而定义了应用子系统或应用系统,在ROE中可以运行、测试和演示所定义的应用系统;在利用CADE进行应用系统开发时,可以复用相似系统作为原型,在该原型的基础上进行加工、修改并生成目标系统,当需要开发一类新的应用系统时,可复用已有的应用框架,选择合适的构件及其模式或开发新构件、定义新模式,插入应用菜单框架,从而生成新系统。总之,应用系统的开发可抽象为如下公式:应用系统 = CADE + 构件类 + 构件模式 我们已经设计和实现了CADE系统,并在CADE平台上成功的开发了财政管理信息系统等实用的应用系统。实践证明,利用CADE开发应用系统,降低了软件开发成本,提高了软件的可重用性。
英文摘要: At present, Application software development exsists problems such as low development efficiency、bad reusability, to resolve these problems need useful and high efficient application development method and its surpporting enviroment. Although waterfall model and rapid prototyping have been two mature development methods, but they aim at how to develop a new system, not how to inherit and reuse the software and methods of previous application system, which is the main way to raise software qulity and development efficiency. Software development enviroment depend on certain software development methods, CASE and Viral Development Environment only help to reduce working hardness and raise efficiency, but can not change development status in the root, which need the changes of development methods. Component-based Application Development Method is supported by software framework, also can use components to construct new application system、design component model、construct system, realize group scale development in application domain, so credible application software system can be developed in shorter time and lower costing. The pivotal technology of CADE is software reuse and component technology, software reuse is to use already developed software component to construct new software, it affects system analysis、design、implement and maintenance stage, through software reuse the cost and time of software development can be reduced, and favorable to software maintability and reliability. Component technology is the key to realize reuse from system to code, the success of reuse depend on the standardize、quantity、qulity and use. Component is reusable software having wrap and inheritance, also can be archieve、data and function model which need not wrap. One component can have many models, component models is instance of component class, which can be used as construct unit in application development. New there are four influential component standards: OLE/ActiveX、OpenDoc、CORBA、JavaBeans, but the part directly serving for application domain has not been mature becaus there are too many things about domain knowledge. The directive idea of component-based application development is : Centering Component-based Application Development Methods, surported by CADE, realize systematic level、application framework and all component object reuse in full-scale and large grained level, and derive the method of rapid prototyping, thereby reduce software development difficulty, in the same time software development efficientcy and software maintability are raised. The overall scheme of component-based application development is the design and realization of CADE and using CADE to develop application system. We divide CADE into two parts : DMV (Development and Maintenance Environment) and ROE (Running and Operating Environment), and a set of general components and application-oriented special components are developed. In DME, Component Model can be defined and inserted into application menu to compose in ROE immediately. When using CADE to develop an application, you can reuse the same type application as prototype, and modify in into final system; when developing a new type application, you can reuse the existing framework, select right component and its models or develop new component and models, then insert into application menu to compose the new system. In short, application development can be abstracted as the formula below: Application = CADE + Components + Components Models We have designed and implemented CADE, and successfully developed finance MIS and other useful application Using CADE. Practice certificate, using CADE to develop application can reduce software development costing and raise software reusability.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/6448
Appears in Collections:中科院软件所

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Recommended Citation:
高岩. 基于构件的应用软件开发支撑环境CADE的设计与实现[D]. 中国科学院软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 1997-01-01.
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