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题名:
多Agent软件系统体系结构及开发方法的研究-以工控系统组态软件SYNALL为例
作者: 朱军
答辩日期: 1999
专业: 计算机软件与理论
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 分布式开放系统 ; 软件体系结构 ; 接口定义语言 ; 形式化描述技术 ; 模型检查 ; 软件重用 ; 软件过程
摘要: 在网络计算时代,软件开发人员面临着一个开放复杂的环境。正是由于开放性和复杂性导致了软件危机较以往更为严重,为了解决开放复杂系统中存在的问题,研究人员提出使用软件Agent和多Agent软件系统来构造新一代的软件。多Agent系统是一种使用松散耦合方式集成系统的方法,它使得软件系统在增减模块的过程中对整体有较少的影响。然而,至今仍然没有一个精确、一致的模型用于刻画多Agent系统,这使得在多Agent系统的开发过程中难以选择一个合适的方法。本文试图通过建立一个多Agent软件系统的通用概念模型,以及相应的开发方法来解决这一问题。文在考虑重用和系统复合的基础上,提出了一个新型的多Agent软件体系结构ALA(Agent-Linker Architecture),这一体系结构支持分布式并发软件的设计开发。ALA体系结构的主要目的是为多个自主Agent系统提供灵活性,同时也为Agent之间的交互协作提供支持。ALA体系结构使系统能够通过分布的多个自主Agent相互协作为用户提供必要的服务,这些Agent具有各自的任务意图、领域知识和控制线程。在ALA下,各个Agent之间通过Linker的代理进行通讯和协作,这些 Linker不仅负责匹配Agent之间的需求与能力,同时也负责信息的路由与传递。ALA具有合适的结构,它使开发人员能够使用不同的语言、在不同的平台上创建新的Agent或对非Agent程序进行包装,同时也有利于Agent的得和动态灵活的组建多Agent系统。本文对ALA体系结构下的多Agent系统结构和元素进行了详细地概念解释,对各元素的特征用途予了应有的描述。ALA体系结构的一记模型包含三层,其中的Agent在动态模型中又可分为两类,Agent之间只能通过异步通知或请求两类消息进行交互。一般认为,软件体系结构必须从以下三个方面对系统进行分析:系统组件的内部功能;体系结构中各元素的相互关系;构成体系结构风格的组合规则。本文分别在这三个方面初步建立了ALA体系结构的形式化模型,文中使用Z规格说明语言刻画了ALA的静态性质和动态行为,但于由Z语言本身表达能力的不足,这一模型难以表达多Agent系统实时、分布、并发等特点。本文在建立ALA体系结构的同时,也提出了一个相应的基于ALA的多Agent系统开发主法,其中重点介绍了如何使用自顶向下和自底向上相结合的方法建造ALA体系结构,同时也对多Agent系统的性质验证进行了详细的讨论。自顶向下的设计方法使用BNF范式定义的接口定义语言描述体系结构,并辅以相应的工作自动生成程序框架,自镀向上的设计方法依据ALA体系结构风格建立了可重用的Agent模板库。此外,本文提出使用基于进程代数的LOTOS语言描述多Agent系统,使用基于动作的时序逻辑定义系统性质,并利用计算机辅助工具对其进行模型检查,从而验证系统的必要性质。目前,这一方面存在的问题在于难以保证系统的BNF描述和LOTOS描述之间语义的一致性。作为多Agent系统ALA体系结构的研究成果,本文介绍了一个面向工业控制系统的、以过程为中心的软件工程环境SYNALL。具体说,SYNALL是一个基于WINDOWS平台的,能够进行数据采集、控制、分析和表示的监控系统开发平台,它提供了实时系统中Agent的设计、开发、模拟等功能。最后,本文展示了一个使用SYNALL系统为山东潍仿电信局开发的电信动力监控系统。总之,ALA体系结构不仅具有坚实的理论,同时也在实践中证明了其实用价值。今后的工作包括对ALA体系结构可伸缩性的评估,以及利用其它相关的研究成果增强ALA理论与相应的工具。
英文摘要: In the time of network computing, software engineers are facing an open complex environment. It is the openness and complexity that make the software crisis more serious than before. In order to solve the problem existing in the open complex system, software agent and multi-agent systems are proposed as a novel way to construct computer software. Multi-agent system is a kind of loose integration approach, which helps reduce the impact on a system when modules are added or changed. However, no precise, consistent model exists for describing multi-agent system until now. Thus, it is difficult to choose a suitable approach or to specify a new one for the development of multi-agent system. This article attempt to address the problem by specifying a generic conceptual multi-agent software architecture and a development method based on it. This paper present a novel architecture, the Agent-Linker Architecture(ALA), directed at supporting larger grain reuse and flexible system composition. Moreover, the architecture supports design of distributed, concurrent application. The ALA makes it possible for software services to be provided through the cooperative efforts of distributed collections of autonomous agents, which have their own thread of control with private knowledge domain and task intentions. Communication and cooperation between agents are brokered by one or more linkers, which are responsible for not only matching requests with descriptions of the capabilities of other agents, but also the routing and broadcast of messages. The paper explains the structure and elements of agent-based systems constructed using ALA. The characteristics and use of each major component of ALA infrastructure are described. The overall ALA for the multi-agent system proposed here consists of three layers in the static model. On the other hand, agents can be divided into two in the dynamic model. Asynchronous notification messages and asynchronous request messages are the sole basis for inter-agent communication. Software architecture are multi-dimensional entities that can be fully understood only when viewed and analyzed at four different aspects of abstraction: internal functionality of a component; interconnection of architectural elements in an architecture; and rules of the architectural style. This paper present formal models of ALA at the four aspects of abstraction as a first step in enabling an ALA design environment to perform the necessary analyses of architecture. Besides the architecture, this paper also describes a multi-agent system development method based on ALA, which focuses on how to build the correct ALA framework using top-down method together with bottom-up method. Moreover, it discusses the questions about the formal specification and verification of multi-agent system in detail. The top-down method provides syntax of the prototype ALA IDL(Interface Definition Language), which is specified in BNF. The IDL is a programming-language independent modeling technique that specifies the instantiation of required architectural elements and their interconnections. The bottom-up method is to provide a basic template library of abstract agents. it not only supports the ALA architectural style, but also realizes the basic functions of agent and linker. Furthermore, this paper describes some work in modeling the specification of the multi-agents system by LOTOS, and verifying its properties expressed in ACTL(Action-based Temporal Logic) by applying automatic tools.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/6514
Appears in Collections:中科院软件所

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Recommended Citation:
朱军. 多Agent软件系统体系结构及开发方法的研究-以工控系统组态软件SYNALL为例[D]. 中国科学院软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 1999-01-01.
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