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题名:
基于收益的软件过程人力资源调度方法
作者: 颜海剑
答辩日期: 2008-05-29
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 软件过程 ; 人力资源调度 ; 动态规划 ; 收益 ; 挣值
其他题名: Benefit-based Approach to Human Resource Scheduling in Software Process
摘要: 现代软件开发项目的规模和复杂度要求软件组织对软件过程进行量化管理和持续改进,并对资源进行合理有效的调度。人力资源是软件过程中最重要的一种资源。人力资源的调度直接影响软件开发的成本、进度和产品质量。有效的人力资源调度不但能促进软件过程顺利进行,而且能使软件组织对需求、市场和资源的变化具有更加灵活的响应能力。 传统的人力资源调度方法通常依靠项目管理人员的主观判断和个人经验对组织的人力资源进行宏观规划、调度优化和绩效评估,这种调度方式具有不可靠性和不稳定性。为了解决传统人力资源调度方法对主观的过度依赖,本文提出基于收益的软件过程人力资源调度方法,以提高人力资源的收益为核心,统一了资源调度的目的和方法,使调度成为基于项目过程数据的客观方法,为项目管理人员提供日常决策支持。 具体来说,本文主要内容包括: 提出整合人力资源调度的软件过程模型,对软件过程人力资源调度相关的实体及其约束关系进行定义,使软件组织可以定量地分析和衡量软件过程人力资源在每个活动的收益水平,优化软件过程人力资源调度。 提出基于收益的软件过程人力资源调度方法和算法。由于人力资源调度的目的是提高人力资源收益,促进资源合理分配,使资源发挥最大的作用,因此本文以收益为评价标准,设计优化算法使软件过程人力资源的预期收益最大化。在采用基于收益的软件过程人力资源调度方法对人力资源进行客观稳定的评价和调度时,收益既可以是软件开发过程产生的真实项目数据,也可以同类项目的历史数据,还可以是经验数据。根据项目实际情况对人力资源在各活动的收益进行合理定义,并据此采用相应的算法。如果人力资源的投入和收益是线性的,则可采用贪婪算法;如果投入和收益是非线性的,则采用基于动态规划的算法。 对基于收益的软件过程人力资源调度方法进行实例研究。将该方法应用于实际软件开发项目,详细地分析了资源调度的执行过程。将挣值作为收益指标,用挣值来客观地评价人力资源的性能,量化人力资源的投入和收益。挣值项目管理是成熟的项目跟踪方法,将挣值用于人力资源调度具有合理性和可信度。 根据该方法设计和开发了相应的人力资源调度系统,可辅助项目管理的日常决策,促进人力资源调度优化,提高资源的投入回报。
英文摘要: The scale and complexity of modern software development project require software organizations to perform quantitative management and continuous improvement on software process, with proper and effective resource scheduling. Human resources are the most important type of resource in software process. Human resource scheduling has direct impact on the cost, progress and quality of software development. Effective human resource scheduling can not only improve the progress of software process, but also help software organizations have agile response to changes in customer requirement, markets and resources. Traditional approaches to human resource scheduling generally depend a lot on subjective discretion and personal experiences of project managers for planning, optimization and evaluation of human resources within the organization. These approaches are inherently unreliable and unstable. In order to overcome excessive dependency of traditional approaches on subjectivity, this thesis proposes a benefit-based approach to human resource scheduling in software process, which focuses on increasing the benefit produced by human resources. This approach combines the method of resource scheduling with its aim, helps resource scheduling evolve to an objective practice based on process data of software projects, and also provide assistance to project managers’ daily decision-making. The benefit-based approach to human resource scheduling in software process defines software process entities and their constraints for human resource scheduling according to the software process model proposed by this thesis; and then quantitatively analyze and evaluate the performance of human resources in each activity, so as to optimize human resource scheduling in software process. Since the aim of resource scheduling is to increase the benefit produced by human resources and improve proper allocation, benefit is leveraged as scheduling criteria in this thesis, and optimization algorithm is designed to maximize expected benefit to be produced by human resources in software process. While human resources are objectively evaluated and scheduled with benefit-based approach to human resource scheduling, benefit here can be real project data produced during software development process, or history data of similar projects, or empirical data. Benefit of human resources in each activity is properly defined based on real circumstances of the project, and a corresponding algorithm is adopted. If the investment of human resources is linear to its benefit, greedy algorithm is adopted; if nonlinear, algorithm based on dynamic programming is used. In the real application of this approach, earned value is adopted as benefit, and earned value is used to objectively evaluate the performance of human resources and quantify the investment and benefit of human resources. Earned value management is a well-accepted approach to project tracking, the adoption of earned value in human resource scheduling is reasonable and reliable. A human resource scheduling system is designed and developed accordingly, which can provide assistance to daily project management, improve optimization of human resource scheduling, and increase return on investment of resources.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/6582
Appears in Collections:中科院软件所

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Recommended Citation:
颜海剑. 基于收益的软件过程人力资源调度方法[D]. 软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 2008-05-29.
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