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题名:
笔式电子表单的敏捷开发
作者: 王晓春
答辩日期: 2007-01-15
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 电子表单 ; 敏捷开发方法 ; 笔式用户界面 ; 业务规则 ; 意图理解 ; 软件开发工具
其他题名: Agile Development for Pen-based E-form
摘要: 表单是企业信息的主要载体和表现形式,工作人员利用表单进行日常工作,管理企业的各项业务。电子表单模拟了企业的这种日常办公方式,可以帮助企业提高工作效率,是计算机最主要的应用之一。目前,电子表单已经成为系统化、科学化管理企事业单位的一种重要手段。随着电子表单在中小企业中的普及,传统电子表单的开发方法和用户界面逐渐显现出弊端,已经成为制约企业信息化的重要瓶颈。敏捷开发方法是新兴的软件开发方法,和基于计划的传统开发方法相比,更能适应需要的变化,解决需求模糊的问题。笔式用户界面是Post-WIMP界面的一种重要形态,采用了纸笔隐喻,具有自然、易学、易用等优点。本文正是在这种背景下对笔式电子表单的敏捷开发进行了研究。 本文以用户为中心的开发方法为主线,通过分析电子表单的特征,并基于笔式用户界面和敏捷软件开发思想,对笔式电子表单的开发从方法和工具两个方面进了深入研究。 本文总结了笔式用户界面的发展和相关应用,并通过分析电子表单的特征和敏捷开发方法,说明敏捷开发笔式电子表单的必要性和可行性。在此基础上,提出了以用户为中心的、面向笔式电子表单的敏捷开发方法UCAM。同时,本文研究了笔式电子表单开发的相关支撑技术,包括基于数字笔的表单可视化制作方法,电子表单中的业务规则描述,以及业务规则的智能化生成。此外,本文利用基于场景的笔交互意图理解模型来帮助系统理解用户的交互,从而减少用户纠错次数,提高系统的可用性。 基于上述研究工作,本文设计实现了一个电子表单开发工具来辅助笔式电子表单的快速、迭代开发,并利用此工具设计实现了多个有代表性的应用系统。 在笔式电子表单敏捷开发的研究中,本文作者开展了以下研究工作: 1、以用户为中心的、面向笔式电子表单的敏捷开发方法研究 针对传统的软件开发方法无法同时解决需求模糊、高可用性和短周期开发等问题,分析了软件开发的交流模型,从人机交互技术与软件开发方法相结合的角度提出了以用户为中心的、面向笔式电子表单的敏捷开发方法,并着重从开发过程以及其使用的模型和技术等方面进行了研究,整个开发过程注重用户的参与、强调用户为中心的设计、避免面面俱到的文档,为实现高可用性笔式电子表单的快速开发提供了指导。 2、基于数字笔的表格制作研究 表格是实现表单纸面效果的一个重要组件。目前已有的表格制作方式均采用鼠标和键盘作为交互设备,显然不符合用户的思维模型,也不符合本文工具的需要。通过对不同用户人群和不同应用的调查分析,本文研究并实现了基于数字笔的表格正式制作和草图制作,并着重研究了制作过程中使用的笔式交互技术。针对草图表格,提出了一种自适应的字线分离方法,使其能转换成正式表格,增加表格制作的灵活性和可用性,为表单用户界面的制作提供了合理的解决方案。 3、笔式电子表单开发工具的研制 现有的笔式电子表单开发工具描述层次低、难以实现快速、迭代式开发,利用它们设计具有纸面效果的表单也十分困难。针对这些问题,本文采用了基于数字笔的表单可视化设计和交互设计,提出了一种支持业务规则声明式描述的表单约束语言,二者实现了整个电子表单的高层描述。在此基础上,利用这些高层描述通过程序生成技术实现了电子表单目标程序和数据模型的智能化自动生成,从而缩小了问题域和代码的鸿沟,提高了工具的可用性,降低了开发成本,提高了软件的开发效率。 4、基于场景的笔交互意图理解模型 可用性是衡量笔式电子表单软件质量的一个重要指标。由于笔交互的模糊性和识别的不精确性,不可避免的出现识别错误。这些错误可由用户来纠正,然而过多地要求用户纠正必然影响可用性。针对此问题,从人类的认知机制出发,建立基于场景的笔交互意图理解模型。此模型利用相应场景下的业务规则来帮助系统理解用户的交互,从而减少用户的纠错次数,减轻用户的负担。 本文的主要创新点归纳如下: 1、以用户为中心的、面向笔式电子表单的敏捷开发方法 2、草图表格的自适应字线分离方法 3、实现了业务逻辑的简要描述及其代码的智能化生成 4、基于场景的笔交互意图理解模型
英文摘要: Form is an important manner for recording and presenting the enterprise information, and is widely used in the management of daily work and business. E-form simulates people’s working model with form, and help people deal with daily work. Utilizing the e-form in daily work, working efficiency is dramatically raised. With the wide use of e-form in small and medium enterprise, the drawbacks of traditional e-form development method and user interface begin to appear, which have become the bottleneck of enterprise information construction. Compared with the traditional plan-based software development methods, agile development method is more adaptive to the situation user requirement is ambiguous and changeable. Pen-based user interface is a primary style in Post-WIMP world, has many potential advantages such as naturalness, easy to use and easy to learn. Base on the analysis of pen-based user interface and the e-form in WIMP user interface, the thesis put forward a user-centered agile development method. And based on the method, we design the corresponding e-form software development tool for the fast and iterative development of pen-based e-form. Utilizing this tool, several typical e-form application systems are developed. Major research aspects and innovations are listed in the following. 1. User-centered agile development method for pen-based e-form The traditional software development methods cannot solve the problem with ambiguous requirement, and also can’t appropriate for the high-usability, short-term period development. Therefore, we analyze the software development communication model. Based on this model, we present a user-centered software development method. The method is described from the point of view of the combination of development process and human-machine interface. The whole process stresses user participation and user-centered design, and provides the guidance for developing the high usability pen-based e-form. 2. Table-form making based on pen-based interaction Table-form is an important component in e-form. In the existing software tools, keyboard and mouse are used as interactive devices for making the table-forms, which doesn’t accord with people’s habits of using paper and pen. In the thesis, we present the pen-based developing method for making the formal and sketched table-form. For the sketched table-form, a self-adaptive method is put forward to separate the words and frame-lines. Based on the method, the sketched table-form can be transformed to the formal table-form successfully so that the flexibility usability of table-form making is increased. 3. Research on the software development tool for pen-based e-Form The existing e-form software tool cannot implement the fast, iterative development for pen-based e-Form because of the complexity of system description, and also cannot design the user interface with paper effect. In the thesis, we use digital pen to design form user interface, and propose a declarative form constraint language to support the description of business rule. Based on which, and utilizing the program generation techniques, the target program codes can be generated automatically, resulting in the reducing of development cost and the improving of development efficiency. 4. Scenario-based interactive intention understanding in pen-based user interface Usability is an important criterion for measuring the quality of pen-based e-form software. Because of the ambiguity of pen-based interaction and the imprecision of recognition, the recognition errors are inevitably and these errors need to be rectified by users. Too many users’ rectifications have a bad effect on usability. To solving the problem, we presented a scenario-based interactive intention understanding model based on the human cognitive mechanisms and cognitive habits. The model utilizes the business rule in corresponding scenario to help system understand user’s interaction, so as to reduce the user’s burden on rectifying errors greatly. In conclusion, the thesis aims to overcome the limitation of current pen-based e-form development methods. Our researches compose of two aspects: first, we study the agile development method suitable to pen-based e-form; second, we introduce several supportive techniques for pen-based e-form development tools.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/6738
Appears in Collections:中科院软件所

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Recommended Citation:
王晓春. 笔式电子表单的敏捷开发[D]. 软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 2007-01-15.
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