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题名:
一种用户主导的需求获取与共赢协商方法研究
作者: 赵玉柱
答辩日期: 2009-01-13
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 需求获取 ; 用户主导 ; 领域知识 ; 个性化推荐 ; 用户偏好 ; 需求协商 ; 共赢 ; 公平 ; 帕累托最优
其他题名: An Approach for User-Driven Requirements Elicitation and Win-Win Negotiation
摘要: 软件开发的成败与需求的质量有紧密的关系。充分获取和理解用户的目标和需求,并采取有效的方法支持多涉众(用户、项目经理、开发人员等)间通过协商就需求达成共识,对软件开发的成功至关重要。然而,在需求获取和协商的过程中,用户对软件系统的认识通常是模糊且不完整的,难以系统、清晰地描述自己的需求;同时,多涉众由于目标不同,容易导致需求冲突,需要通过协商达成共赢,但怎样确定共赢的协议缺少有效的指导方法。 本文提出一种用户主导的需求获取与共赢协商方法,通过提供个性化的领域知识推荐来促进用户更清晰有效地表达其需求,并引入公平分配的方法来确保涉众在需求协商中的公平共赢。该方法包括基于个性化领域知识的用户主导需求获取阶段和基于公平分配的共赢协商阶段,并提供了相应的支持算法。在基于个性化领域知识的用户主导需求获取阶段,用户以目标和用例的形式定义需求,该方法为用户提供个性化的领域知识推荐,帮助涉众复用相关的领域需求,而用户定义的需求经过领域专家的选择和精化可以用来扩充领域知识库。在基于公平分配的共赢协商阶段,用户与其他涉众就需求进行协商,最终达成公平共赢的协议。作为对该过程的支持,本文提出了一种个性化领域知识推荐算法,以及一种公平共赢需求协商算法。本文最后通过两个软件开发的案例,阐述了该方法的应用,并验证了方法的有效性。 用户主导的需求获取与共赢协商方法能够促进用户在需求获取中的参与,有助于领域知识的积累和复用,并能够确保需求协商中涉众间的公平共赢。该方法有助于提高需求获取的质量,促进涉众间的合作,对于保障软件开发的成功具有积极意义。
英文摘要: The quality of requirements has significant influence on the success of software development. It is critical for the software engineers to elicit and understand users’ goals and needs, and to facilitate stakeholders (users, project managers, and developers, et al.) to reach an agreement on requirements, by using effective approaches. However, in the requirements elicitation and negotiation, users always have difficulties in delivering their requirements clearly and completely due to their vague and partial understanding of the software system; meanwhile, stakeholders often have conflict requirements due to their different goals, and they need to gain a win-win relationship by negotiating requirements, however existing negotiation approaches are inadequate in selecting the optimal win-win requirements contract from various options for stakeholders. This thesis proposes an approach for user-driven requirements elicitation and win-win negotiation. The approach facilitates users to define their requirements by providing personalized recommendations of domain knowledge, and ensures stakeholders’ win-win relationship by adapting a fair division algorithm. The process of the approach includes two phases: user-driven requirements elicitation phase based on personalized domain knowledge, and win-win negotiation phase based on fair division. In the elicitation phase, users define their requirements in goals and use cases, with the help of personalized recommendations of domain requirements assets, and domain experts can choose reusable requirements to expand the domain knowledge base. In the negotiation phase, users and other stakeholders negotiate on requirements, to get a fair win-win requirements contract. To support the process, this thesis proposes several algorithms for providing recommendations based on users’ individualities and context, and for choosing the fair and Pareto optimal requirements contract. At last, this thesis illustrates the application of the approach by two case studies. The approach facilitates users’ participation in requirements elicitation, as well as the accumulation and reuse of domain knowledge in requirements engineering, and ensures a fair win-win relationship among stakeholders. The approach is helpful for improving the quality of requirements, and facilitating stakeholders’ cooperation, therefore it can promote the success of software development.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/6784
Appears in Collections:基础软件国家工程研究中心_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
赵玉柱. 一种用户主导的需求获取与共赢协商方法研究[D]. 软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 2009-01-13.
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