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题名:
嵌入式操作系统实时性及其改造方法的研究
作者: 申士辉
答辩日期: 2007-05-30
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 嵌入式操作系统 ; RTU ; uITRON ; δ框架 ; 调度算法 ; 微内核 ; RTC
其他题名: The research of real-time and reconstructing method for embedded operating system
摘要: 嵌入式技术作为计算机技术和电子通讯技术的交叉学科,其在科学研究、工程设计、军事技术等领域得到了广泛的应用。在一般情况下,嵌入式应用的执行都有着相当严格的时间限制,有些嵌入式设备可能需要软件在微秒级甚至纳秒级时间单位内做出响应,有些实时任务则需要无延迟地以几毫秒的周期执行,而且,嵌入式应用的复杂度也是与日俱增,这就对当今的嵌入式实时操作系统提出了更为苛刻的要求。因此,嵌入式操作系统作为嵌入式系统的核心技术,人们对其的实时性和相应改造方法的研究变得尤为的重要和迫切。 本文针对上述一系列问题开展了如下的工作: 1) 首先对嵌入式操作系统的特点和国内外动态(几个典型的实时操作系统)进行了简略的介绍,从而从整体对目前国内外实时性研究的情况有了一个全面的了解。 2) 在典型的控制系统及其运行环境中,当某个具体的事件发生时,相应的外部设备就向系统发出一个中断请求。得到中断请求之后,系统便通过中断响应转入相应的“中断处理程序”。视事件本身和所需反应的复杂程度,对有些事件的反应在中断服务程序中就可完成,有的则需要上升到进程一级,由某个服务进程加以处理并做出反应。本文接下来就是以此处理过程为一条红线对嵌入式操作系统的实时性进行深入的分析。 3) 然后,对目前广泛应用的两种实时性改造方法:调度算法改造和微内核进行了深入的分析,对其的优点及在实时性改造方面存在的“瓶颈”进行了总结。 4) 提出解决传统的实时性改造方法上的“先天”缺陷的策略,并详细介绍了几种有代表性的方法:uITRON、RTU和δ框架。并对他们在实时性改造的效果进行了对比。 5) 选择RTU作为蓝本,对其存在的移植性不强的缺陷提出了相应的解决办法,即RTC。该办法是一种折中的办法,即只对实时内核中重要功能模块(也就是任何实时内核都必须具有的功能模块)用硬件来实现,从而降低了实时内核的硬件化程度。这样,和RTU相比,RTC的可移植性有了很大程度上的改善。 在最后,将RTC运用到uCOS-II上。通过实验数据表明,RTC系统的实时性和uCOS-II的实时性相比确实也有着明显的提高,特别在重负载情况下,这种性能上的提高更为明显。因此,RTC这种改造方法确实可以保证一定实时性的基础上提高硬件RTOS的可移植性。
英文摘要: As the interdiscipline of computer and telecommunication technology, embedded technology has a comprehensive application in scientific research, engineering design, military technology fields. The execution of embedded application has strict time restriction usually, and some embedded equipments need the software performing on them react at an us or even ns level. On the other hand, the complexity of embedded application is improving gradually, which brings forward more strict requirement for contemporary embedded operating system. Thus, as the core technology of embedded system, the research of real-time and reform method for embedded operating system is becoming vital and exigent. According to a serial of problem, we have carried out some work as below: 1) First of all, we introduced the character of embedded operating system and action in and out the nation correspondingly, thereby have a view of research of real-time from all aspects. 2) In a typical control system and its executing environment, peripheral equipment will send an interrupt requirement when a specific event happened. The system will turn to interrupting handler after getting an interrupt requirement. Some reaction for events is capable to be handled in interrupting handler, and some of them will get into process level depending on the event itself or the complexity of event. We analyzed the real-time of embedded operating system deeply according to the clue of executing process. 3) In the next step, analyze two traditional real-time improving methods: scheduling algorithm and micro-kernel, then concluded the merit and bottle-neck existed in the aspect of real-time improvement. 4) Bring forward the strategy handling with the flaw of the traditional real-time improving method, and introduce several typical methods deeply: uITRON、RTU and δ framework. Then give them a comparison in performance. 5) Choose the RTU as the original version, and bring forward a solution according to the flaw, which is RTC. This method is a eclectic way, which is only implementing important function modules in hardware in order to reduce the level of hardware. Thus, the RTC’s replanting increases largely compared to RTU. Finally, make the RTC execute on the uCOS-II. Judging from the experimental data, the real-time of RTC system has increased largely compared to uCOS-II. The improvement of performance is more obvious, especially in over loading condition. Hence, RTC, the method of reconstruction, can improve the replanting of hardware RTOS meanwhile promise the real-time at a certain extent.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/6786
Appears in Collections:中科院软件所

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Recommended Citation:
申士辉. 嵌入式操作系统实时性及其改造方法的研究[D]. 软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 2007-05-30.
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