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题名:
网络应用支撑环境下基于知识的软件重用技术研究
作者: 刘兴坤
答辩日期: 1997
专业: 计算机软件
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 网络应用 ; 软件开发 ; 软件重用系统 ; 支撑环境
摘要: 进入八十年代之后,网络应用研究的重点已从“网络体系结构”转移到了“网络应用体系结构”。研究网络应用体系结构的目的是构建一个有机联系的、统一的标准化框架和网络应用体系结构,用以支持网络应用软件的研究开发和运行。为此,国际上许多公司及研究单位纷纷开展这方面的研究并推出相应的系统。为促进国内网络应用的发展,我们承担了国防科工委“八、五”预研项目:“网络应用支撑环境NAS”,目的是研究网络应用环境下的理论问题和技术问题,并开发出一个网络应用支撑原形系统,为分布式应用系统的集成摸索经验,提供依据,探索途径,奠定前期技术基础。网络应用支撑的核心设计思想是“开放性”和“软件重用”。目标是建立一套功能完善的、用于支持网络应用软件的开发、建立、测试、调度、修改、扩充、运行和维护的工作平台,以及研究解决此过程中遇到的理论问题和技术问题,以期提高网络软件的开发效率和软件质量。而较好地支持应用软件开发的基本思想是建立一套完整的开发和运行的管理机制,采用软件组装的方式,使用户充分利用已有的标准构件和各种资源,快速有效地完成开发工作。本文工作是在实现NAS的同时进行的。目的是通过基于知识的软件重用系统(KBSRS)的建立,为应用软件的开发、使用和维护提供友好、方便地支持。KBSRS属于NAS体系结构中应用层的开发工具部分。关于NAS的环境的整体实现方面本文不做详述(参阅[90]),本文的重点是NAS环境中的软件重用技术的研究。软件重用作为一种非常有前途的软件设计方法学,对于克服软件危机确实具有很大的潜力。近二十多年来,人们为软件重用对付出了艰辛的努力,取得了很好的效果,但还不尽人意,其原因是多方面的。概括来说,关键问题是如何创建一套完整的软件重用系统机制,完善其功能和用户接口,使用户使用更方便、更友好,真正实现重用。本文分析以往重用系统的基础上提出了网络应用环境下基于知识的软件重用系统,是将知识工种及人工智能的概念在软件重用应用中的尝试,对软件重用的进一步研究与应用具有重要的指导意义。本文首先针对三种较有代表性的软件重用系统作了系统、全面地分析,它们共同的最大缺点是对用户的要求过高,难以真正方便重用,本文在吸收它们的优点的基础上提出的KBSRS的目的在于克服以往重用系统的缺点,提供给用户一个功能完善、易于理解和使用的软件重用系统。为此,我们建立了以面向对象为主的构件库、知识库及其推理机制,采用了面向对象的知识表示方法,提供了构件的各种查询方法和组装机制,这里提出了“部分匹配”的概念,根据构件与用户要求之间的匹配程度,提供了一系列带有加权值的输出构件列表,供用户选择使用。对于不匹配的构件可进一步分解,重新构造构件描述,继续查询,并且在整个过程中给出了相应的解释信息,这种机制对于具有丰富资源的网络环境下的软件重用系统特别有意义。“部分匹配”带来的问题是构件在用户就用中可能被修改,这需要重新验证修改后构件的正确性和一致性,为此,本文对可重用构件的验证分析方面做了一研究工作,提出了基于分簇的回归错误假设(RFH)的方法,并给出了RFH的形式化表示。该方法是向着可重用构件的验证分析的自动化方向迈出的重要一步,同时在软件重用系统中增加构件的验证分析功能是一个完善的软件重用系统的必然趋势。网络环境下多个用户同时工作,分工完成某项任务,这时的重用就存在工作中的冲突和协同问题及构件修改后的不一致性问题,为解决此类问题,我们设计实现了具有多用户接口、基于智能体(Agent)的协同任务编辑器,我们设计实现了具有多用户接口 角色策略、席位分配策略和数据锁定机制来协同用户间的活动,解决对共享信息访问的冲突。ABCE是将智能体的概念以及协同问题的求解应用于软件重用的一次很好的尝试,对网络环境下基于知识的软件重用系统的研究与开发具有重要的指导意义。同时,我们对用户界面的开发进行了系统的分析和设计,提出了一个一致的用户界面开发平台,采用面向对象的图形用户界面设计思想,使得界面的开发和使用更加直观和方便,另外,将应用系统设计中的功能设计和界面设计分开,保证了系统功能的相对独立和完整,奠定了重用的基础。
英文摘要: In the 1980s, the focus of network application research was not "Network Architecture" any longer, and "Network Application Architecture (NAA)" become the new focus. The research on NAA is aimed to construct a systematic universal standardization frame for supporting research, developing and running of network application software. Therefore, most of the companies and research units in the world began to do research work in this area and showed their systems. In order to improve the domestic development of network application, we undertook the eight-five year preresearch project of SICND(Science and Industry Committee of National Defense)--- "Network Application Support Environment--NAS", studied the theoretical and technical problems under network application environment, implemented a primary network application supporting system, contributed to the integration of distributed application systems. The kernel of designing network application supporting system is "open" and "software reuse" And the goal is to construct a platform with complete functions supporting the development, construction, testing, schedule, modification, extension, running and maintenance of network application software, to solve the theoretical and technical problems occurred during the platform construction and to improve the developing efficiency and software quality of network software. The basic idea to support application software development is constructing a complete developing and running management mechanism using software composition technology to make users fully use existing standard component and various resources in a network to rapidly and efficiently complete their development task. This dissertation was completed during implementation of NAS. The purpose is to provide a friendship and convenient support for the development, running and maintenance of application software through the creation of Knowledge Based Software Reuse System (KBSRS). The KBSRS belongs to development tools in Application Layer of NAS. The main work in the dissertation is research on software reuse technology under NAS, and the cntire implementation of NAS environment is not discussed in detail here (see[90]). As a kind of very prospective software design methodology, software reuse has great potentials for overcoming software crisis. In the recent twenty years, great efforts were made for software reuse and led to good results. However, there are still many things to do to make it better, such as to make the functions and using of software reuse systems more powerful, more convenient and more friendly for users. Based on former software reuse system, the dissertation gives the Knowledge-Based Software Reuse System in network application environment, tries to apply the knowledge engineering and artificial intelligence to software reuse applications, and shows the directions for further research and application of software reuse. The dissertation first analyzed three representative software reuse systems systematically and completely. Their common shortcoming is that they has great restriction on users and are difficult for reusing. Digested their merits, the dissertation gives KBSRS system to overcoming the shortcomings of other reuse systems and provide users with one which is fulfunctional and easy to understand and use. So, we set up object-oriented components library, knowledge library and their reducing mechanism, gives object-oriented knowledge representing method, gives several query method and composing mechanism of components. We set out the concept of "partial Match" in which the KBSRS output a sorted weighted component list according to matching degree between components and user's requirement for selecting a satisfactory component. Not matched component can also be decomposed further into smaller components which can be reconstructed their searching description and be searched again. The KBSRS give notes information during the entire procedure of searching, matching and decomposed. This match mechanism has special meaning for software reuse in network environment that has rich components resources. The problems coming with the Partial Match is that the components may be modified by users. In this case, the components need to be verified in order to assure its validity and consistency. Therefore, we have done some research work on verification and analysis of reusable components. A method of RFH (Regression Fault Hypothesis) based on clustering is put forward and its formal representation is given. This method walks a important step toward the automation of reusable components verification and analysis, and adding the functions of verification and analysis in software reuse system is very necessary. There are conflicting, cooperative problems and inconsistent of modified components in network environments in which many users works together for one task. So, we designed an Agent-Based Cooperative Editing System (ABCE) in which the user-role policy, the floor control policy and the data locking mechanism are used to solve conflicts in share information accessing. At the last, the analysis and design of object-oriented graphic user interface is given, and a consistent user interface development platform is put forward.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/6804
Appears in Collections:中科院软件所

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Recommended Citation:
刘兴坤. 网络应用支撑环境下基于知识的软件重用技术研究[D]. 中国科学院软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 1997-01-01.
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