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题名:
软件开发过程混合模型在银行业务事后监督系统中的应用
作者: 潘萌
答辩日期: 1997
专业: 计算机软件
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 软件开发模型 ; 瀑布模型 ; 原型 ; 原型化 ; 软件生命周期 ; 混合模型 ; 后督系统
摘要: 本文在对软件开发模型及方法进行深入阐述和研究的基础上,以银行业务事后监督系统的设计与实现为背影,探讨了一种基于瀑布型和原型化方法的混合模型的开发方法。目前,尽管软件开发的模型不少,但尚无一种令人十分满意、普遍适用的模型,因此,在具体开发过程中,一定要从实际出发,采用适合自己问题的模型。本文首先阐述了目前几种软件开发模型及其优缺点,包括瀑布模型、快速原型模型、渐增式模型、螺旋模型、软件重用模型和基于CASE的模型。然后着重论述了两种迄今仍用得最多的模型 — 瀑布模型和原型化模型的思想方法和技术,以及它们在具体应用中的优缺点。瀑布型开发方法是最早提出的,是一种严格线性的、按阶段顺序划分的、逐步细化的软件开发模型,强调在软件开发过程中的阶段性以及各个阶段的文档的完备性。它的提出和应用对软件产品按工程化的方法开发和管理做出了巨大的贡献,但它在实际应用中还存在一些弊病。原型化方法是80年代提出的一种软件开发方法,它针对瀑布型方法的不足,提出在做整体设计之前,先对系统建立一个原型,通过原型获得对系统的更多、更完整的认识,或对系统的某一部分或某一功能的更深刻的理解,以此来减少软件开发的风险,保证软件开发的质量。原型化方法包括原型的建立和原型的利用两个方面,原型的建立又分为原型定义、原型建立和原型运行及测试三个阶段。用原型化方法开发软件产品要成立原型化小组,并要求用户参加原型化小组,及时反馈用户信息。工具、环境的支持和精心、完善的管理是保证原型化方法顺利实施的必要条件。但从目前情况看,原型化方法也有待于继续发展和完善。银行储蓄业务事后监督系统的开发,根据实际情况,提出了一种混合模型的方法。这种混合模型是基于瀑布型和原型化模型,并汲取了这两种模型的优点。混合模型的整体开发步骤和阶段划分都与瀑布模型大致相同,而在需求分析阶段对系统建立屏幕原型,通过运行这个原型,获得对系统的更完整更全面的认识,并获得更多更完整的需求信息,为随后进行的系统设计和详细设计打下良好的基础。银行储蓄业务事后监督系统(简称后督系统)是为了监督各个储蓄所各类存款的余额,各个帐户的余额和利息,监督储蓄所每日发生的业务以及每日、每月、每年的帐务报表。后督系统开发初期被设计成三个子系统,它们分别为后督业务处理子系统、后督辅助子系统及后督工具子系统。通过在需求分析阶段建立并运行屏幕原形,充分获取用户需求信息,后督系统的设计被修改为三个供用户使用的子系统和一个供维护人员使用的子系统,它们分别是后督业务处理子系统、后督辅助子系统、后督数据维护子系统及后督工具子系统。随后按照瀑布型方法完成系统的详细设计、编码、测试和安装维护工作。银行储蓄业务事后监督系统采用了这种混合模型开发方法,大大缩短了系统设计周期,充分满足了用户需求,完全达到了系统设计目标,并为今后软件开发积累了成功的经验。
英文摘要: Based on the description and further research of software development models and methods, a mixed method by the sequential software life-cycle method (waterfall method) and prototyping method is discussed in this thesis. By this mixed model, Backstage Supervise System for Saving Business of Bank (Back System) was developed. At present, there are a few kinds of software development models, but unfortunately, more of them can be considered a perfect method for universal use. In reality, the software model should be chosen carefully according to the actual situation. First, a few kinds of software development models, which are popular used today, are introduced in this thesis as well as their advantages and drawbacks, including waterfall model, rapid prototyping model, incremental model, spiral model, software reuse model, CASE-based model and other kinds of models. Then, two models most usually used in the world — waterfall model and prototyping model as well as their developing methods, technique, advantages and drawbacks are introduced elaborately. Waterfall model is the earliest model which is a rigid, sequential progression throughout the software development process. During the design phase the process remains a top-down decomposition. A further activities after every phase needs to be highlighted: documentation. The model and its extensive application contribute much to the development and management of software engineering. However, waterfall model has some disadvantages in actual use. The search for new, more practical method led to the prototyping method which can overcome the weakness of waterfall method in 1980s. According to this method, before the system design, a prototype is built for the system. THe prototype serves to facilitate comprehend of the system or some parts of the system. The goals are the reduction of risk and successful quality assurance. The streamlined phase of the prototyping method are define prototype, build prototype and exercise prototype. But prototyping method needs further development. Finally, a mixed method which was used in the design of Back System is introduced. The mixed method base on the advantages of waterfall method and prototyping method, according to the actual situation. The model of whole system is almost same with waterfall model, except that during the phase of requirements analysis and requirements definition, prototyping strategy is added. Screen prototypes are built and operated, in order to obtain more information about the system and requirements. So the further system design and detailed design would be on a better basis. By using the mixed model, the design of Back System was completed successfully with a much shorter period, satisfying the user's requirement sufficiently and becoming beneficial experience for the similar software development afterward.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/6978
Appears in Collections:中科院软件所

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Recommended Citation:
潘萌. 软件开发过程混合模型在银行业务事后监督系统中的应用[D]. 中国科学院软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 1997-01-01.
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