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题名:
一种基于虚拟组织工作流的ITO管理辅助模型
作者: 杨叶
答辩日期: 2001
专业: 计算机软件与理论
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 软件工程 ; 软件过程 ; 信息技术外包 ; 项目管理 ; 虚拟组织 ; 工作流
摘要: 信息技术外包(Information Technology Outsourcing, ITO)是一种在软件产业蓬勃兴起的跨组织的软件开发服务合作过程。软件开发外包是ITO中最重要的一部分。外包最早出现在数据处理的初期阶段。它是指了一个客户企业(或称买方,Client)同外部的供应商(或称卖方,Vendor)签订合同,把原本由机构内部的成员开发或完成的某一服务转而由该卖方提供。本文旨在通过剖析软件过程的发展演化过程,以及对此过程中人们提出和广泛采用的相关模型的介绍和分析,来阐述软件过程管理的发展新趋势-软件外包,以及如何为这种新过程提供支持环境。在此基础上,本文介绍一种基于虚拟企业工作流的ITO项目管理方法。所谓“虚拟企业”,指的是按照虚拟的方式把来自不同的企业或组织成员组织在一起来完成同一个项目或系统。虚拟企业的组织结构基于参与项目的各企业的合同或约定,合同双方或多方会在项目中有不同的分工,他们各自企业内部可能采用的项目管理方法也不尽合同。这就要求一个跨组织的工作流管理系统提供较好的兼容性和整合性。同时对于分布在不同地域的一个外包项目来说,如何协同是一个很重要的问题。基于以上考虑,本文给出的虚拟组织工作流(Virtual Organization Workflow, VOW)模型通过其所包含的两个子模型:知识模型和过程模型来对虚拟企业工作流进行建模,其中知识模型包括虚拟组织知识库和信息知识库,过程模型包括对ITO项目管理过程的建模及对过程控制的支持。VOW的知识模型是对ITO过程管理涉及到的知识进行建模,这些知识包托虚拟组织、数据、文档模板等,从而使ITO过程相关知识具有较好的可重用性和扩展性。过程建模机制则着重考虑了外包客户与供应商之间的协商和协作的交互过程。本文讨论了基于Extensible Markup Language (XML)的知识模型建模,同时为保证过程模型的灵活性,本文提出了基于多层Finite State Machine (FSM)的过程建模机制,支持用户在不同的抽象层次上定义过程细节。FSM确保了VOW的灵活性和适用性。最后,本文介绍了一个基于VOW的ITO管理辅助工具的构造和原型介绍。
英文摘要: To solve the more and more complex problems in software development and management process, software development and management process, software engineering theories and practices have made great achievements continuously with lots of new techniques and management experiences. Recently, more and more efforts on software engineering research have been made in many non-technique factors of the software process, which include human resource, information collection, other resources, cost, risks, and so on. How to change these factors into a more technical, measurable style and easily integrated into a tool is the main aim of the research. In this evolution of software development patterns, outsourcing some parts of their Information Technology (IT) processes to a third party (or parties) has been an very important and popular way for organizations to get a better IT functions and get costs cut down to a great extent. However, when an outsourcing client is pursuing the reported "enormous advantages", it is still full of risks in business because of the combined risks of software project management with internal complexity and rapid changes of IT techniques. It is reported that IT Outsourcing (ITO) may result in a number of negative consequences, among which diminished quality of service and loss of control over ITO processes are two kinds of major risks. Regarding the role of virtual organization in an ITO environment, the Virtual Organization Workflow (VOW) is put forward in the paper to model an ITO process. VOW consists of two sub-models: Knowledge Model (KM) and Process Model (PM). In the VOW, knowledge modeling assures the reusability and extensibility of knowledge related to an ITO process, and process modeling mainly focuses on the negotiation and collaboration of interaction between a client and potential vendors. The KM is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML) and used to model the knowledge of a Virtual Organization (VO), which includes the definition and hierarchy of organization, and information that could be data, forms, documents of templates. And the PM is used to model the ITO process with a set of activities (also can be refined into tasks) that need to be executed in a controlled order. The PM uses the multi-layer Finite State Machine (FSM) to implement process modeling. FSM adds much flexibility and adaptation into VOW by modeling the ITO process into detailed control flows. At last, a prototype of facilitating tool for ITO management process framework is built based on the VOW model.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/7084
Appears in Collections:中科院软件所

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Recommended Citation:
杨叶. 一种基于虚拟组织工作流的ITO管理辅助模型[D]. 中国科学院软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 2001-01-01.
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