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题名:
信息可视化中的交互技术研究
作者: 任磊
答辩日期: 2009-01-14
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 可视化 ; 信息可视化 ; 人机交互 ; 用户界面模型 ; 模型驱动架构 ; 软件开发方法 ; 软件体系结构 ; 软件平台 ; 制造业信息化 ; 计算机文件系统
其他题名: Research on Interaction Techniques in Information Visualization
摘要: 随着计算技术的发展,使海量信息得以存在并迅猛增长。近年来商务智能、生物信息学、社会网络分析等新兴应用领域的迅速发展,对海量信息的有效利用提出了迫切的要求。我们正处于信息爆炸的时代,纷繁复杂的信息给人们理解、查询和获取知识带来沉重的负担。信息可视化通过对抽象信息提供计算机支持的、交互式的、可视化的表示形式,不断增强人们对于复杂信息的认知能力,成为人们解释现象、发现规律、辅助决策的强有力工具。 人机交互是信息可视化的重要研究领域。然而,对于信息可视化中的人机交互的研究仍存在以下挑战:一是传统的信息可视化研究主要关注数据转换过程并以可视编码为核心,缺乏从人的角度出发对任务进行全面分析,对于新出现的交互任务提供的理论支持不足,需要对传统信息可视化模型予以扩展。二是针对海量信息在小界面中的可视化与交互问题,如何为用户提供真正符合认知规律的新的交互式可视化技术,使用户能够高效地进行交互探索以洞悉知识。三是针对领域应用中的非专家用户需要构建具有个性化用户界面的交互式信息可视化系统的问题,如何提供一套统一的开发方法。本文正是从上述问题出发,围绕着信息可视化中的交互技术,从理论、方法与应用等方面展开研究。 本文首先论述了信息爆炸带来的挑战以及信息可视化的发展趋势,继而对信息可视化、人机交互、模型驱动架构等相关研究进行了综述。在此基础上构建了交互式信息可视化框架,建立了交互式信息可视化的用户界面模型IIVM。然后,针对海量信息在小界面中的可视化与交互问题,提出了嵌套圆鱼眼视图技术、基于嵌套圆鱼眼视图的Focus+Context交互式可视化技术、基于网络关注度模型的Focus+Context交互式可视化技术。针对非专家用户构建具有个性化用户界面的交互式信息可视化应用的问题,提出了基于模型IIVM的交互式信息可视化系统开发方法Daisy。最后,将上述研究成果应用于制造企业交互式信息可视化系统与计算机文件系统的开发,给出了两个应用实例。 本文的创新点主要包括: 1. 构建了一个交互式信息可视化框架。 本文在信息可视化的经典模型基础上对其进行扩展,构建了一个交互式信息可视化框架。该框架从用户、任务、信息三个方面对信息可视化进行描述,深入分析了信息的转换过程、任务的层次树模型、用户的认知规律,并讨论了三者之间相互影响的关系。该框架提炼了信息可视化中人的特征、计算机表示的信息的特征以及相互之间的关系,能够为信息可视化中的人机交互理论提供支撑。 2. 建立了交互式信息可视化的用户界面模型IIVM。 本文围绕着交互式信息可视化框架中的用户的特征、任务的特征、信息的特征及其相互之间的关系,基于Puerta提出的基于模型的界面开发通用框架中的界面模型,建立了交互式信息可视化的用户界面模型IIVM。讨论了IIVM的抽象组成元素即用户模型、任务模型、领域信息模型,以及具体组成元素即可视化表征模型与对话模型,建立了各个模型间的映射关系,并给出了IIVM的形式化定义。IIVM能够有效地描述具有个性化用户界面的交互式信息可视化系统。 3. 提出了两种新的Focus+Context交互式可视化技术。 针对海量信息在小界面中的可视化与交互问题,在认知心理学规律基础上,提出了嵌套圆鱼眼视图技术;提出了一种基于嵌套圆鱼眼视图的Focus+Context交互式可视化技术;提出了一种基于网络关注度模型的Focus+Context交互式可视化技术。实验结果表明:上述方法能够有效解决在小界面内对海量信息的交互式可视化的问题,具有较高任务完成效率和用户满意度。 4. 提出了一种基于模型的交互式信息可视化系统开发方法Daisy。 提出了一种基于模型IIVM的交互式信息可视化系统开发方法Daisy。描述了该方法的软件生命周期,论述了其中两项关键技术:IIVM建模与描述文件生成方法、系统自动生成方法。讨论了支撑该方法的Daisy平台的体系结构,给出了Daisy工具箱。实验表明,该方法可以为非专家用户构建交互式信息可视化的特定领域应用提供一种有效的解决方案。 5. 基于上述研究成果完成了制造业交互式信息可视化系统和计算机文件可视化系统等两个实际系统的开发。 将研究成果应用于两个系统。一方面,将Daisy方法及Focus+Context交互可视化技术应用于制造业领域,构建了制造业企业交互式信息可视化系统。实例表明,Daisy能够面向非专家用户、为交互式信息可视化系统的开发提供一种统一的解决方案。另一方面,将基于嵌套圆鱼眼视图的Focus+Context交互式可视化技术应用于计算机文件系统,开发了基于嵌套圆的计算机文件可视化系统。应用实例表明,本文研究成果既具有理论价值又具有应用价值。
英文摘要: Never before in history data has been generated as such high volumes as it is today. With the fast development of computer technology and its widespread application, we are facing the remarkable growth large-scale data. Exploring and analyzing the vast volumes of data becomes increasingly difficult in many application domains such as Business Intelligence, biology, sociology, etc. Information Visualization (or InfoVis) seeks to amplify human cognition by leveraging human visual capabilities to make sense of computer-supported, interactive, visual representations of abstract data. InfoVis is recognized as an important medium for understanding, exploration and uncovering insight in massive complex information. Human-Computer Interaction (or HCI) is an essential part of InfoVis, but the InfoVis community has generally focused more on visual encoding than on interaction. There are still great challenges in the research of HCI in InfoVis as follows. First, we do not have a clear understanding of the nature of interaction or of user’s intention in traditional InfoVis theory. New frameworks and taxonomies should be established around a user’s intent while interacting with a system rather than the low-level interaction techniques provided by a system. Second, users need novel interaction techniques based on human cognition theory to achieve high efficiency in exploring large-scale information in small interfaces. Third, although InfoVis technologies have proven indispensable tools for making sense of complex data, wide-spread deployment has yet to take hold, as successful InfoVis applications are often difficult to author and requires domain-specific customization. Based on the challenges above, the thesis focuses on the research field of interaction techniques in InfoVis. First, the thesis analyzes the development of the related research works. Then, the framework of interactive information visualization is established to support the interaction theory in InfoVis. And according to this framework, the thesis constructs the Interactive Information Visualization Interface Model (or IIVM). Two novel Focus+Context techniques are proposed to solve the problem of interactive visualization of large-scale information in small interface. A novel model-based development method, named Daisy, is presents for the development of interactive information visualization system based on IIVM. Finally, two applications of the novel interaction techniques above are discussed. The main creative contributions of this thesis can be summarized as follows: 1. The framework of interactive information visualization. Based on the classic theory of InfoVis, this thesis establishes a framework of interactive information visualization, which describes InfoVis from three respects: user, task, and information. The thesis discusses the transformation process of information, hierarchical model of task, and cognition principles of user in this framework. This framework, which extracts the features of human and information represented by computer and the relations between human and computer in InfoVis, can give effective support to HCI in InfoVis theory. 2. Interactive Information Visualization Interface Model (or IIVM) This thesis proposes an Interactive Information Visualization Interface Model (or IIVM) based on the framework above and the interface model in general computational framework for model-based interface development systems. User model, task model, domain information model, visual representation model, and dialog model of IIVM are presented and the formal definition of IIVM is given. IIVM can effectively describe the interactive information visualization system with personalized user interface. 3. Two novel Focus+Context techniques for interactive visualization based on cognition theory. With respect to the problem of interactive visualization of large-scale information in small interface, the thesis proposes a nested circles fisheye technique, a Focus+Context technique based on the nested circles fisheye, and a Focus+Context technique based on the model of degree of interest of network. The implement approaches of the Focus+Context technique above are presented. Experimental results show that the Focus+Context technique above can achieve higher task completion efficiency and user satisfaction. 4. The model-based development method for interactive information visualization. Based on IIVM, a model-based development method named Daisy for interactive information visualization is proposed. The thesis presents the software life circle of Daisy and discusses two key techniques of Daisy including IIVM modeling method and automatic generation method of system. The architecture of Daisy platform is built to support the Daisy method and Daisy toolkit is introduced to non-specialist users. Experimental results show Daisy can provide a general solution for development for interactive information visualization with personalized user interface. 5. Two application examples including an interactive information visualization system of manufacture and a file visualization system based on nested circles. The thesis applies Daisy to the development of interactive information visualization system of manufacture and builds system prototypes. On the other hand, the novel Focus+Context techniques are applied to computer file system and the file visualization system based on nested circles are presented. Application examples show that interaction techniques proposed by this thesis have values both in theory and in application.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/7206
Appears in Collections:人机交互技术与智能信息处理实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
任磊. 信息可视化中的交互技术研究[D]. 软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 2009-01-14.
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