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题名:
需求工程研究及用户主导需求分析平台MEMOIR的构造
作者: 谭海棠
答辩日期: 1997
专业: 计算机软件
授予单位: 中国科学院软件研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院软件研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 软件工程 ; 需求分析 ; 需求工程 ; 面向对象 ; 用户主导
摘要: 大量实践经验表明:在软件开发过程中隐藏的错误,发现得越迟,改正错误所须的费用就越高。开发人员需要尽早发现并改正错误。软件需求分析是把软件计划期间建立的软件需求描述求精和细化,这是软件生命期中的重要一步也是决定性的一步。而需求分析阶段是最容易存在误解和谬误的地方,使用传统的方法,即使花费大量的精力也难保没错,而且用户的需求也容易发生改变,如果直到软件测试的时候甚至软件提交用户后才发现产品并不合乎用户的需要,势必带来人力物力的巨大浪费。我们认为,解决日益加剧的应用软件需求的一种方法是让最终用户在软件定义中发挥主要的作用,不管他们计算机水平高低,让他们能够运用他们熟悉的描述方法(如自然语言等)直接定义系统中和他们相关部分的工作,所有这些定义集中起来形成系统的规格说明。从某种意义上说,用户也可以看做是一个对象(Object)、角色(Role)或是一个智能体(Agent),但我们并不关心具体的用户是谁,而只关心每个用户所完成或实现的功能。这样就可以使对象技术的应用并通过合理的转换使问题描述空间与求解空间取得一致,最终用户实际上成为软件系统的主要设计者,因而用户作为软件系统设计者与使用者的双重身份有机地统一起来。因为其中用户发挥的作用是主导性和决定性的,所以我们称之为用户主导的(User-Driven)。基于上述分析及过去工作的基础,以面向对象方法为基础建立了用户主导的需求分析模型UDM。我们提出建立用户主导的需求分析平台(User-Driven Requirement Analysis Platform) MEMOIR. MEMOIR的特点是强调用户的有效参与,它的目标是建立一个用户友好的工作环境,它提供了丰富表达手段和独具特色的向导引擎,使没有多少软件需求分析知识的用户也可以在向导的引导下,轻轻松松地描述他们的系统。MEMOIR提供分布式的多用户环境,使得现实系统中扮演不同角色的用户可以同时定义他们的工作。为此,MEMOIR通过用户引擎提供了多用户协同的支持机制。
英文摘要: A lot of experience show that the errors in the process of software development, the later they are discovered, the higher cost they raised to fix. It is important that software requirements analysis techniques and software specifications are emphasized. Usually, the process of software specification is full of misunderstand, and the traditional requirement analysis method can't ensure the correctness of analysis results in the early phase of software development process. We think that a possible approach to solve this problem is enhance the capability of end-user, give the end-user a powerful computer aided requirement environment, let the end-user specify an information system directly. The end-users know the part of system which has relations with them, all these small parts add together then form the whole system specification. An end-user can regard as an Object, an Agent or a Role. We do not concern who they are, we only need to know what function they have in the system under development. The end-users become the developer of their system, the software development process changed to software specification process under the help of CASE tools. For the end-users are very important in this process, we call this developing method as user driven. We forward the idea in our job, we present an User-Driven Model base on Object-Oriented method and Role Method. We also construct an User-Driven Requirement Analysis Platform: MEMOIR. MEMOIR is an user friendly and opened environment, an end-users can use their family method to specify their system. MEMOIR has a guide engine, it can help the end-users specify their system step by step. It is so easy, the end-user who has poor knowledge about software analysis can finish their specification. MEMOIR is a distributed environment, the end-users specify their system together, with the help of User-Engine, MEMOIR support multi-users cooperation.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.iscas.ac.cn/handle/311060/7522
Appears in Collections:中科院软件所

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Recommended Citation:
谭海棠. 需求工程研究及用户主导需求分析平台MEMOIR的构造[D]. 中国科学院软件研究所. 中国科学院软件研究所. 1997-01-01.
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